4 types of triangulation by Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999)

 Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation in qualitative research: *Data Triangulation, **Investigator Triangulation, **Theory Triangulation, and **Methodological Triangulation*[1][2][3][4][5].

### Data Triangulation

Data triangulation involves the use of multiple data sources in a single study. This type of triangulation is about collecting data from different sources, such as different people, different times, and different locations, to ensure that the findings are robust and generalizable[1][2][3][4][5].

### Investigator Triangulation

Investigator triangulation involves the participation of two or more researchers in the same study. This type of triangulation can bring both confirmation of findings and different perspectives, adding breadth to the phenomenon of interest[1][2][3][4][5].

### Theory Triangulation

Theory triangulation uses different theories to analyze and interpret data. This type of triangulation can assist the researcher in supporting or refuting findings by considering different theoretical perspectives[1][2][3][4][5].

### Methodological Triangulation

Methodological triangulation involves the use of multiple methods to conduct a study. This type of triangulation is about combining different methods, such as interviews, observation, and document analysis, to capture different aspects of the phenomenon under study[1][2][3][4][5].

Triangulation is a method used to determine the location of a fixed point based on the laws of trigonometry. In qualitative research, triangulation is used to ensure that the findings are robust and generalizable by combining different data sources, researchers, theories, and methods[1][2][3][4][5].


[1] https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1187&context=jsc

[2] https://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/sub_landing/files/10_4-Intro-to-triangulation-MEF.pdf

[3] https://www.pakfaizal.com/2023/08/four-types-of-triangulation-in.html

[4] http://www.qualres.org/HomeTria-3692.html

[5] https://www.proquest.com/docview/1559261620

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