Theoretical framework for SFL Appraisal Theory


### Theoretical Framework

#### Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL)

Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), developed by M.A.K. Halliday, views language as a social semiotic system. It emphasizes the functions of language in social contexts and focuses on how language is used to construct meaning.

#### Appraisal Theory

Appraisal theory, a part of SFL, examines how language expresses attitudes, emotions, and judgments. It consists of three main subsystems:

- **Attitude**: Refers to the expression of feelings, including affect (emotions), judgment (evaluations of behavior), and appreciation (evaluations of things).

- **Engagement**: Concerns the ways speakers position themselves in relation to the propositions and proposals they put forward.

- **Graduation**: Involves the grading of phenomena by intensity or quantity.

#### Register



Model Spradley untuk analisis data kualitatif dalam etnografi terdiri dari 12 langkah, yang meliputi:

1. **Menetapkan Informan** - Memilih dan menentukan siapa informan penelitian.
2. **Mengumpulkan Data** - Mengumpulkan data melalui wawancara, observasi, dan dokumentasi.
3. **Membuat Catatan Hasil Wawancara** - Membuat catatan tentang hasil wawancara yang telah dilakukan.
4. **Mengidentifikasi Tema** - Mengidentifikasi tema atau topik yang akan diteliti.


 Ideology of MP Tom Tugendhat in His Political Speech: Appraisal Critical Discourse Analysis
Meutia Pelangi Naghia, Setyo Prasiyanto Cahyono

This study describes the ideology represented by MP Tom Tugendhat in his political speech about Afghanistan. The speech transcript was obtained from the online newspaper called Spectator. Meanwhile, this study employs purposive sampling data with descriptive qualitative as the model of the research. In analyzing the data, the researchers use systemic functional linguistics, specifically the Appraisal theory proposed by Martin and White (2005) to classify and describe the speaker's ideology in his speech. However, this study focuses mainly on the attitude appraisal including affect, judgment, and appreciation as well as its gradability of attitudinal meanings. The result shows that types of attitude appraisal mostly produced by the speaker is affect, judgment, and appreciation simultaneously. While, the realization of the ideology can be seen through his emotion which is reflected by his affect toward Afghanistan. In addition, the use of appreciation and judgment also influence his ideology since he considers that some events occurred in Afghanistan.

A Corpus-Based Study of Ideological Manipulation from Appraisal Theory in Hong Kong Political Interpreting Discourse
Lei Sha
Binzhou University, Binzhou, China