Four types of triangulation in qualitative research

Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) inter-researcher triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. 

Do you remember the discussion about the triangulation of methods for collecting qualitative data in case studies? 

Our discussion at that time was only based on the narrow understanding of triangulation, namely the use of various methods in researching something. In social research, the scope of triangulation is narrower. 

According to Denzin (1970), triangulation integrates various data sources, researchers, theories, and methods to study a particular social phenomenon. Based on this broader understanding, Denzin distinguishes triangulation into four types. 

1. Trianggulasi sumber data, Data Source Triangulation

2. Trianggulasi Peneliti, Researcher Triangulation 

3. Trianggulasi Teori, Theory Triangulation 

4. Trianggulasi Metode, Method Triangulation 

yang bisa dikerjakan di skripsi mahasisw S1 adalah yang no.1 dan no.4

trianggulasi sumber data dan trianggulasi metode. yang no 2 dan 3 belum memungkinkan. karena trianggulasi peneliti itu indentik dengan kelompok peneliti padahal mahasiswa bikin skripsi itu sendirian. trianggulasi teori itu ada di level thesis mahasiswa S2 dan disertasi mahasiswa S3. ingat prinsip ini:

level S1= belajar membaca, (membaca, mengutip dan menulis kadang masih salah-salah gimana mau trianggulasi teori dan menghasilkan new theoretical contribution?)

level S2= belajar menulis, merangkum silang pendapat dalam perdebatan teori dan ikut yang mana si penulis ini dengan adu argumen di world academia.

level s3= belajar menulis secara serius dan menghasilkan teori baru.

Let's see one by one below. 

1. Data Source Triangulation

Triangulation of data sources is the collection of data from different sources using the same method. For example, in-depth interviews about traditional healing methods can be conducted with traditional healers, the elderly, herbalists, and others.

 In triangulating data sources, it is necessary to pay attention to three types of data sources:

  • Time (for example, daily or seasonal activities)
  • Space (for example, houses or hamlets/villages)
  • People

People as data sources can also be divided into three categories, namely aggregate (selected sample individuals), interactive (small groups, families, work groups), and collectivity (organizations, communities, village communities). 

2. Researcher Triangulation 

Researcher triangulation involves a number of researchers with different scientific disciplines in the same research. Researcher triangulation is intended, among other things, to avoid the potential for individual bias in a single researcher. One thing to note, if a study applies researcher triangulation, it must be ensured that the most skilled researcher is directly involved in the data collection and analysis process. The researcher's triangulation becomes more effective if that role is delegated to assistants or students. 

3. Theory Triangulation 

Theory triangulation is the use of several perspectives or theories in interpreting a set of data. Triangulation of theory is rarely achieved in social research. The problem is that various theories, because they have different basic assumptions, will explain the same data set differently. Therefore, qualitative researchers prefer to let the data "talk" itself to avoid complications due to incoherence between theories. Or another alternative, the researcher chooses one or several propositions that make sense and are relevant to the problem under study. 

4. Method Triangulation 

Method triangulation is the use of many data collection methods in a study. Triangulation of methods is necessary because each data collection method has its advantages and disadvantages. Combining at least three methods, for example, participant observation, in-depth interviews, and document tracing, one method or the other will cover each other's weaknesses to make the capture of social reality more reliable. This type of triangulation method and data source triangulation will be discussed further in a special session later. 

Author: Felix Tani


No comments:

Post a Comment

Thanks for your comment...I am looking forward your next visit..