Mirzaaghabeyk (2022) applies the Appraisal Model to analyze the evaluative realizations in news texts, with a focus on the affect, judgment, and appreciation dimensions. The study finds that judgment is the most frequent sub-system, followed by affect and appreciation, and that these realizations are influenced by ideological orientations. This work aligns with Martin's (1992) emphasis on the relationship between register, genre, and ideology in English texts. Martin (2005) further develops the Appraisal Framework, providing a comprehensive account of its linguistic theory and application. Martin (2002) expands on the role of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) in discourse studies, particularly in relation to register, genre, and social context. These studies collectively highlight the significance of SFL Appraisal, Register, Genre, and Ideology Realization in news texts, providing a theoretical framework for their analysis.


The theoretical framework for analyzing news texts using Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) involves several key concepts:

1. **Appraisal**: This refers to the linguistic resources used to evaluate, express attitudes, and convey emotions towards entities or propositions. Appraisal includes three main components:

   - **Attitude**: Evaluates the attitude towards a proposition or entity.

   - **Graduation**: Expresses the degree of evaluation, such as intensity or strength.

   - **Engagement**: Involves the speaker's stance or commitment to the proposition or entity[1][2][3].

2. **Register**: This refers to the specific variety of language used in a particular context, such as formal or informal, technical or non-technical. Registers can influence the way appraisal is realized in news texts[2][4].

3. **Genre**: News texts belong to specific genres, such as gossip news, investigative reporting, or opinion pieces. Genres can shape the way appraisal is used to convey meaning and express attitudes[2][3][4].

4. **Ideology Realization**: This involves analyzing how the appraisal system in news texts reflects and reinforces societal ideologies, such as power structures or cultural values. This aspect is crucial in understanding how language is used to shape public opinion and reinforce dominant ideologies[1][3][4].

By combining these concepts, SFL provides a comprehensive framework for analyzing the linguistic and ideological aspects of news texts, enabling researchers to better understand how language is used to convey meaning and shape public discourse.









This theoretical framework aims to interrelate the Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) concepts of appraisal, register, and genre with the realization of ideology in news texts. Ideology, as defined by Van Dijk (2001), forms the basis of the belief systems of specific groups and is a system of ideas that guides societal power structures. Language acts as a medium for ideological forces, legitimizing power relations (Haberman, 1973). This framework will explore how these SFL components contribute to the representation of ideology in news texts.

**Key Components**

1. **Ideology in Language**

    - Ideology influences how language is used to legitimize power relations. It can be a correct conceptualization of language or a fallacious interpretation (Seargeant, 2009). Ideologies underpin the belief systems of groups (Van Dijk, 2001).

2. **Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL)**

    - **Appraisal:** Refers to how speakers/writers express attitudes, judgments, and emotions in texts, revealing their evaluative stance. It includes affect, judgment, and appreciation (Mirzaaghabeyk, 2022).

    - **Register:** Concerns the situational context of a text, encompassing the field (what is happening), tenor (the participants and their relationships), and mode (the role of language) (Alyousef & Alyahya, 2018).

    - **Genre:** Relates to the social purpose and structure of a text. It encompasses the text's communicative goals and rhetorical features (Martin, 2007).

3. **Realization of Ideology through SFL Components**

    - **Appraisal:** Ideological orientations are expressed through the evaluative language used in news texts. Journalists' attitudes and emotions towards events can be traced through their lexical choices, which reveal ideological biases (Susanto & Bimo, 2023; Sabao, 2016).

    - **Register:** The field, tenor, and mode in news texts shape how ideologies are presented. Different contexts (field) and relationships (tenor) influence the language choices that reflect ideological positions (Chen-guang, 2011).

    - **Genre:** The genre of news texts, such as reports or editorials, influences the structure and style of ideological expression. Each genre follows certain conventions that guide how ideologies are communicated (Imtihani, 2012).

**Integration of Components**

To comprehensively understand the realization of ideology in news texts, it is essential to consider the interplay between appraisal, register, and genre:

- **Interplay of Appraisal and Register:** The evaluative language (appraisal) used in different situational contexts (register) can highlight ideological stances. For instance, judgmental language in a political news report may reveal underlying ideological positions (Mirzaaghabeyk, 2022; Fang, 2011).

- **Genre and Ideological Expression:** The genre determines the rhetorical structure and the use of appraisal resources. Editorials, for instance, often employ evaluative language to persuade readers towards a particular ideological viewpoint (Caffarel & Rechniewski, 2009).




The integration of SFL conceptsappraisal, register, and genreprovides a robust framework for analyzing the realization of ideology in news texts. By examining how these elements interact, we can uncover the ways in which language is used to legitimize power relations and convey ideological messages.


- [Haberman, 1973](

- [Van Dijk, 2001](

- [Seargeant, 2009](

- [Martin, 2007](

- [Mirzaaghabeyk, 2022](

- [Alyousef & Alyahya, 2018](

- [Chen-guang, 2011](

- [Susanto & Bimo, 2023](

- [Sabao, 2016](

- [Imtihani, 2012](

- [Caffarel & Rechniewski, 2009](

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