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What is the different linguistics features of editorial text and news report?


Editorial texts and news reports are both forms of written journalism, but they have distinct linguistic features and purposes. Here are some key differences in their linguistic features:

  1. Tone and Voice:

    • Editorial: Editorials often have a strong and opinionated tone. They express the viewpoint or stance of the publication, and the writer's voice is prominent.
    • News Report: News reports aim to be objective and impartial. They present facts and information without expressing personal opinions. The voice of the reporter is typically neutral.
  2. Perspective:

    • Editorial: Editorials provide the author's perspective or viewpoint on a particular issue or topic. They may include arguments, analysis, and recommendations.
    • News Report: News reports are expected to be unbiased and objective. They present information in a balanced manner, avoiding personal perspectives or opinions.
  3. Language Complexity:

    • Editorial: Editorials often use more complex language, including persuasive techniques, rhetoric, and sophisticated vocabulary to support the writer's argument.
    • News Report: News reports use straightforward, concise language to convey information efficiently. They prioritize clarity and readability.
  4. Citations and Sources:

    • Editorial: While editorials may reference facts and statistics, they often rely on the authority and reputation of the publication rather than providing extensive citations.
    • News Report: News reports rely heavily on citing sources and attributing information to credible authorities. They often include quotes and references to support the presented facts.
  5. Headlines:

    • Editorial: Editorial headlines may be more creative and provocative, designed to draw readers' attention and express the main point of view.
    • News Report: News headlines are typically more straightforward and objective, summarizing the main facts of the story without taking a stance.
  6. Structure:

    • Editorial: Editorials may have a more flexible structure, with a clear introduction of the topic, followed by arguments and analysis, and a conclusion or call to action.
    • News Report: News reports generally follow a structured format, such as the inverted pyramid, where the most important information comes first, followed by additional details in descending order of importance.
  7. Bias:

    • Editorial: Editorials openly express a particular bias or opinion, often advocating for a specific position or perspective.
    • News Report: News reports strive to minimize bias and present information objectively. Any bias is considered a flaw in journalistic integrity.
  8. Audience:

    • Editorial: Editorials are often targeted at an audience with a specific interest or ideological alignment with the publication. They seek to persuade or engage readers who share or are open to the publication's perspective.
    • News Report: News reports aim to inform a broad and diverse audience, regardless of their personal beliefs or affiliations. They prioritize providing information that is relevant to a wide range of readers.

In summary, while both editorial texts and news reports fall under the umbrella of journalism, they serve different purposes and, as a result, have distinct linguistic features in terms of tone, perspective, language complexity, citations, structure, bias, headlines, and audience.

The linguistic features of editorial texts and news reports can be different due to their distinct purposes and perspectives. Here are some key differences: Editorial Texts:

  • Opinionated: Editorials represent the official view of the publication and are written to express a particular perspective
    They often use language that clearly expresses a viewpoint, even without explicit designations
  • Persuasive: Editorial writers aim to influence public opinion, promote critical thinking, and sometimes cause people to take action on an issue
    They use persuasive techniques such as emotional appeals, rhetorical devices, and strong language to convince readers of their viewpoint
  • Short sentences and simple sentence construction: Editorials often use short sentences and simple sentence structures to convey their message more effectively
  • Active voice: Editorials typically use the active voice in verbs, which makes the writing more direct and engaging
  • Short words from common vocabulary: The use of short, familiar words helps to make the editorial more accessible to a wide range of readers
News Reports:
  • Objective: News reports are designed to clearly and accurately depict a given situation, presenting the facts in as objective a manner as possible
    They aim to inform readers without expressing a particular viewpoint
  • Neutral tone: News reports generally use a neutral tone, avoiding strong language or emotional appeals
  • Inverted pyramid structure: News reports often follow an inverted pyramid structure, presenting the most important information at the beginning and gradually providing more details
  • Attributed sources: News reports frequently include quotes and information from attributed sources, such as eyewitnesses or official statements, to support the facts being presented
  • Third-person perspective: News reports are typically written in the third person, focusing on the events and people involved rather than the writer's opinions or experiences


Understanding newsworthiness and news values

Understanding newsworthiness and news values
Journalists select topics and write news stories on the basis of particular criteria or values that have come to characterise newsworthiness. Such news values typically include:
 Unexpectedness: being unusual, strange, rare, unexpected, surprising
 Impact: being important to many people; having (the potential for) significant effects, consequences,
 Superlativeness: being of high intensity, large scale or scope (the biggest, fastest, etc)
 Eliteness: being of high status, fame, celebrity – for example, people, countries, institutions
 Proximity: being geographically or culturally near the news organisation’s target audience
 Timeliness: being timely in some way (in relation to the publication date) – for example, current right
now, recent, seasonal, ongoing, about to happen, new or ‘a first’
 Positivity: positive news (feel-good stories, scientific breakthroughs, benefits)
 Negativity: bad news (controversial, conflict-laden, risks, set-backs, etc)
 Personalisation: having a personal or ‘human’ face, involving ‘ordinary’ people rather than elites
News values influence how a story is written
News stories tend to be written so that they demonstrate these news values, for example by highlighting the
unexpected aspects of research news in the headline or in the first paragraph:
 Chocolate cake breakfast could help you lose weight
 Researchers at Granada University in Spain have found that beer can help the body rehydrate better after a workout than water or Gatorade.
 Logically it may be assumed that the more children a mother has, the more stressed out she will be, but a new study has revealed that this is not the case.
These three examples come from news stories that were widely shared on social media and suggest that
‘unexpected research news’ is an important subcategory of viral news. It is not just unexpectedness that can be used to present a topic/issue as ‘newsworthy’ – the other news values can also be established through skillful writing. Satisfying more than one news value can increase the newsworthiness of a story.
Potential consequences and how to prevent them A potential consequence of the need to satisfy news values can be that journalists foreground particular aspects of the research (for example, its importance, consequences, controversial nature) to ensure that a ‘newsworthy’ story is published that will appeal to their target audience. As a scientist/researcher and with the help of your media office, you can limit any exaggerations by presenting your study in a well-written press release so that it satisfies these criteria but does not misrepresent your research. Check the media release carefully, as it may be used uncritically by news organisations.
In addition:
 Think carefully about the timeline of your press release (Timeliness) and the country of publication
 Understand the journalist, the news organisation, and their audience.
 Read news items that have been published about your area of expertise.
 Consult more extensive guidelines for scientists – many are available online (for example,
Charles Perkins Centre/Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, 2019 :  Source:

The Discourse of News Values: How News Organizations Create Newsworthiness

In an era in which the astonishingly rapid development of digital media has arguably produced major changes in the way news is disseminated, it seems of the utmost importance to (re)consider how newsworthiness is constructed, and what ideological implications the discourse of news values may have within a social and cultural setting that has been transformed radically. This is exactly the aim of Bednarek and Caple, whose volume offers a cutting-edge perspective on how to carry out the study of news discourse. In fact, the challenge posed in the ten chapters comprising the volume is the promotion of a combination of approaches that takes into account the multimodal character of today’s news discourse. Indeed, in a world that has gone digital, the construction of news discourse is more than ever the result of the interplay between a range of semiotic modes, each participating in the representation of the world that news discourse does ‘sell’ to a variety of audiences. Building on their ongoing research, Bednarek and Caple illustrate the relevance of Discursive News Values Analysis (DNVA) to the study of news reporting, and propose a new methodology, which they term Corpus-Assisted Multimodal Discourse Analysis (CAMDA) for its being a multimodal approach that “brings together multimodality, discourse analysis and corpus linguistics” (8).The approach is proposed as a means to provide a framework for the systematic analysis of how news values are constructed through the semiotic resources that are employed for the presentation of certain vents as newsworthy.


This book is the second book-length treatment of ‘news values’ by Bednarek and Caple after their earlier work in 2012. It is a significant development of their previous work and provides a more detailed and systematic analysis of newsworthiness in English language news media. There are two important features in this book which put Bednarek and Caple into the map of scholars who have contributed significantly to ‘news values’ and ‘newsworthiness’ research (e.g. Bell, 1991; Galtung and Ruge, 1965; Harcup and Neil, 2001). One is the close and systematic analysis of images and the other is the inclusion of corpus methods. The corpus consists of 12 newspapers (a mix of ‘popular’ and ‘quality’) from Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as the Facebook pages, Twitter accounts and websites of 22 news organizations in major English-speaking nations. A few news organizations in the Middle East were also included.
The book comprises 10 chapters and is organized into four main parts. Chapter 1, Introduction, establishes the importance of studying ‘news values’ and the necessity of a multimodal (i.e. both verbal and visual) approach. Part I, titled ‘Theory’, is dedicated to the discussion of news values both in journalism and linguistics (Chapter 2). The authors start with the widely cited work of Galtung and Ruge (1965), elaborating on each ‘news factor’ or ‘news value’ proposed by Galtung and Ruge (p. 29) and discuss their lasting influence on the subsequent ‘news value’ studies. As argued by Bednarek (2016) elsewhere, ‘examining how events are endowed with newsworthiness by the news media shows which aspects of the event are emphasised, and reveals the shape in which events are packed for news consumption by audiences’ (p. 31).
In Chapter 3, Bednarek and Caple conceptualize and exemplify their list of ‘news values’ (i.e. Aesthetic appeal, Consonance, Eliteness, Impact, Negativity, Personalization, Positivity, Proximity, Superlativeness, Timeliness and Unexpectedness) and, in doing so, consolidate their ‘Discursive News Value Analysis’ (DNVA) framework. The important difference to note between Galtung and Ruge’s classic categories and those of Bednarek and Caple is the ‘linguistic’ and ‘semiotic’ focus of the latter in contrast to the focus on ‘content’ of the former (see pp. 28–30). It is worth mentioning that their DNVA adopts both ‘constructionism’ and ‘realism’ in the sense that ‘they assume that material events are endowed with newsworthiness by the media through emphasising or de-emphasising certain news values in the text’. They also assume that ‘the potential news value of events depends on a given sociocultural system that assigns them value’ (p.51). In other words, an event is ‘constructed’ as news and the news value of the event is not ‘natural’ or ‘inherent’.
In Part II, Chapters 4 and 5, a frame for analysing verbal and visual elements is discussed. Chapter 4 focuses on linguistic resources (e.g. lexical choices such as ‘typical’ for consonance, ‘prestigious’ for eliteness; see page 79 and 80 for more examples) for establishing each news value. The book uses the online reporting the same event (i.e. the killing of five Israelis in Jerusalem in November 2014) by Sydney Morning Herald (Australia), The Guardian (UK) and the Washington Post (US), as an example to showcase the application of DNVA. The same news value elements are discussed with regard to the images in Chapter 5. The only addition to the inventory is ‘aesthetic appeal’ (visual attractiveness of an item). After providing a typical example for each of the visual news value element, the chapter finishes with an analysis of a front-page report of Sydney Lindt Cafe Siege1 in 2014 in the The West Australian.
Part III (Chapters 6, 7 and 8) provides three case studies using DNVA. Chapter 6 looks at how ‘cycling’ is associated with certain news values. A corpus, titled Cycling, consisting of 1678 articles and 506,324 tokens was used. The analysis showed that Negativity was the most typical news value constructed and this was through negative lexis such as ‘injure’, ‘die’, ‘kill’ and so on (pp. 146–147). There was also evidence of Personalization and Superlativeness as well as Timeliness (e.g. ‘is being treated’, ‘today’) and Proximity (e.g. ‘in Oxford’, ‘in West Oxford’, ‘at the junction of Henry Road and Botley Road’). Chapter 7 focuses on images used in news organizations’ Facebook pages and Twitter accounts. It was found that Eliteness (e.g. image of famous people like political figures), Personalization (e.g. image of ordinary human beings, non-celebrities in human interest stories) and Proximity were the most commonly constructed news values. While Chapters 6 and 7 focus, respectively, on one semiotic mode, Chapter 8 presents a multimodal analysis of 99 widely shared news items on Facebook.
Part IV (Chapters 9 and 10) discusses the possibility of diachronic and cross-cultural studies of newsworthiness. Chapter 9 is particularly fascinating as it suggests possibilities for future research. For instance, the chapter compares reporting on the Sydney Siege from a number of countries in Europe and America. Apart from providing some DNVA of the publications of different countries, the main purpose of the chapter is to encourage researchers to apply DNVA to ‘other’ languages in cross-cultural research. They also encourage researchers to conduct ‘historical news discourse’ or take a ‘diachronic’ perspective.
In the book, Bednarek and Caple have focused on the English-language publications. The most common types of news value(s) reported in their studies might be different from those construed or constructed by a news outlet in Africa or the Middle East (Makki, 2016). Further research is needed to explore this analytical framework in the journalism of other countries and cultures, since an event’s potential news value is ‘socioculturally-assigned’ (p. 51). However, researchers should not take the list of news values presented in this book as an exclusive list and try to find only these values, but they should observe closely as they might come up with new and different categories.
This book would be of interest to scholars working in journalism, communication, linguistics and discourse analysis. Bednarek and Caple, with their knowledge and expertise in discourse analysis and corpus linguistics and their background in journalism and photography, offer a theoretically informed and an innovative take on the concept of ‘news values’.



Monika Bednarek

The Discourse of News Values: How News Organizations Create Newsworthiness

Monika Bednarek, Helen Caple
Oxford University Press, 2017 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 302 pages
The Discourse of News Values breaks new ground in news media research in offering the first book-length treatment of the discursive construction of news values through words and images. Monika Bednarek and Helen Caple combine in-depth theoretical discussion with detailed empirical analysis to introduce their innovative analytical framework: discursive news values analysis (DNVA). DNVA allows researchers to systematically investigate how reported events are "sold" to audiences as "news" (made newsworthy) through the semiotic resources of language and image.

With an interdisciplinary and multi-methodological approach, The Discourse of News Values analyzes authentic news discourse (both language and images) from around the English-speaking world through three new case studies: one that analyzes newsworthiness around the topic of cycling/cyclists; another that analyzes news values in images disseminated by news media organizations via Facebook; and a third that focuses on news values in "most shared" news items.

Introducing readers to the possibilities of both DNVA and corpus-assisted multimodal discourse analysis (CAMDA), The Discourse of News Values brings together corpus linguistics and multimodal discourse analysis in a stimulating and unique book for researchers in Linguistics, Semiotics, Critical Discourse Analysis and Media/Journalism Studies.

News Discourse

Monika Bednarek, Helen Caple
Bloomsbury Publishing, Jun 28, 2012 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 288 pages
This book explores the role of language and images in newspaper, radio, online and television news. The authors introduce useful frameworks for analysing language, image and the interaction between the two, and illustrate these with authentic news stories from around the English-speaking world, ranging from the Oktoberfest to environmental disasters to the killing of Osama bin Laden. This analysis persuasively illustrates how events are re-told in the news and made 'newsworthy' through both language and image. This clearly written and accessible introduction to news discourse is essential reading for students, lecturers, and researchers in Linguistics, Media/Journalism Studies, and Semiotics.

example of APA 7 version citation style and its online citation generators



Formula pembuatan Judul yang menarik minat editor jurnal Internasional


Saya pernah mendengar tips ini

Contoh pembuatan  judul yg baik pake rumus

Topic/the problems + method + locus/object/subyek penelitian 


To Say or not to Say? Construing Contextual Taboo Words Used by Acehnese Speakers in Indonesia

tips dari editor in chief jurnal terindeks scopus Q1 SIELE: 

dan satu lagi: judul harus kelihatan problematic dan memancing perhatian. saya terkesan dengan judul How ‘Islamic’ is Islamic Banking? judul yang kelihatan simple tapi mencoba unmasking/ unreveal persoalan yang mendasar: seberapa Islami kah perbankan Islam?

judul itu bisa berganti-ganti atau diubah ubah tapi yang jelas di manuscript wajib ada novelty, research gap dan theoretical contribution. keterangan lengkap ada di video webinar ini 

What are the aspects or dimension of English Syntax?

English syntax has different aspects or dimensions that help us understand how sentences are constructed and how they convey meaning. Here are some of the aspects or dimensions of English syntax: 

History of grammatical theory: This aspect deals with the evolution of grammatical theory over time and how it has influenced the study of syntax. It includes the development of transformational generative grammar (TGG) by Noam Chomsky in the 1950s and its reformulation in his book "Aspects of the Theory of Syntax"
, 3, 5.
Synchronic aspects: This aspect deals with the study of syntax at a particular point in time, focusing on the structure of sentences and how they function in communication. It includes the study of word order, sentence structure, and the relationships between words and phrases
, 2, 5.
Horizontal dimension: This aspect deals with the relationships between words and phrases within a sentence. It includes the study of subject-verb agreement, tense, and aspect
Vertical dimension: This aspect deals with the relationships between sentences in a discourse. It includes the study of cohesion and coherence, which are important for creating a coherent and meaningful text
Serial dimension: This aspect deals with the relationships between clauses within a sentence. It includes the study of subordination and coordination, which are important for creating complex sentences
. In summary, the aspects or dimensions of English syntax include the history of grammatical theory, synchronic aspects, horizontal dimension, vertical dimension, and serial dimension. Understanding these aspects can help us analyze and interpret sentences and texts in English.
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

English syntax, like the syntax of any language, is a complex system that governs how words are structured and arranged to create meaningful sentences. There are several key aspects or dimensions of English syntax:

  1. Word Order: English is considered a subject-verb-object (SVO) language, which means that the typical word order in a declarative sentence is subject-verb-object, as in "She (subject) reads (verb) a book (object)." However, English does allow for some flexibility in word order, especially in questions and sentences with certain emphasis.

  2. Parts of Speech: English words are categorized into various parts of speech, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. Understanding how these different parts of speech function in sentences is crucial to English syntax.

  3. Phrases: Sentences are composed of phrases, which are groups of words that function as a single unit. Common types of phrases include noun phrases (e.g., "the big dog"), verb phrases (e.g., "will eat breakfast"), and prepositional phrases (e.g., "in the park").

  4. Clauses: Clauses are larger syntactic units that contain both a subject and a predicate. There are two main types of clauses in English: independent clauses (can stand alone as complete sentences) and dependent clauses (cannot stand alone and function as part of a larger sentence).

  5. Sentence Types: English sentences can be classified into different types, including declarative (statements), interrogative (questions), imperative (commands), and exclamatory (expressing strong emotion). The syntax of a sentence often depends on its type.

  6. Agreement: English has subject-verb agreement, meaning that the form of the verb must match the number and person of the subject. For example, "He sings" (singular) vs. "They sing" (plural).

  7. Tense and Aspect: English verbs can convey information about when an action took place (tense) and how it relates to the flow of time (aspect). Common tenses include past, present, and future, while aspects include simple, continuous, perfect, and perfect continuous.

  8. Modifiers: Adjectives and adverbs are used to modify nouns and verbs, respectively, providing additional information and details in a sentence.

  9. Conjunctions: Conjunctions are used to connect words, phrases, or clauses within a sentence. Common conjunctions in English include "and," "but," "or," "if," and "because."

  10. Voice: English sentences can be in either active or passive voice. Active voice emphasizes the doer of the action, while passive voice emphasizes the receiver of the action.

  11. Sentence Structure: English sentences can be simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex, depending on their structure and the number of independent and dependent clauses they contain.

  12. Ellipsis: Ellipsis is the omission of words or phrases that can be inferred from context. This is common in English to avoid redundancy, especially in conversational or informal writing.

These aspects and dimensions of English syntax interact to create the structure and meaning of sentences in the language. Mastery of English syntax is essential for effective communication and writing in English.