AKHTAJ, NUR AINI (2010)
This research paper investigates how inferiority feeling of Oliver
Twist as the major character is reflected in Roman Polanski’s Oliver Twist.
Therefore, the study analyzes the movie in terms of its structural elements and
based on the individual psychological analysis.
The writer uses qualitative study, in which the primary data is the
movie of Oliver Twist, and secondary data is the other data related to the research
such as some books of individual psychological theory by Alfred Adler, movie
script, commentaries, internet, and other relevant information. The method of data
collection is library research. The technique of data analysis is descriptive
The result of the analysis is as follows. Firstly, the structural element
of the movie presents a solid unity. Secondly, the individual psychological
analysis shows that the inferiority feeling of Oliver Twist influences his
personality in facing social life. He feels there is no one who loves and cares him
because he is an orphan and poor boy. Those problems produce weak feeling that
affects his personality. His weakness in social sphere drives him to overcome his
inferiority. He compensates his weaknesses by striving to get his goal of life.Finally, he can live happily and peacefully with the new family.
A. Background of the Study
Every individual has problems in his life. The problem that appears is complex. Most of them related to human psychological condition. One of the basic problems of individual is feeling of inferiority. This emerges as the result of psychological and social weaknesses. Inferiority feeling also arises for imperfection in doing something. Those feelings include subjective feeling, which is experienced by people because of their social disabilities.
Thus, human beings try to compensate for their inferiority feeling by striving to overcome their feeling. Inferiority feeling influences human beings‟ life-style. In other words, inferiority determines life-style involving how people attempt to defeat their weakness. Commonly, individual applies their inferiority in social life. However, they tend to be motivated to overcome feeling of inferiority by building relationship with others to get their life‟s goal.
Sometimes, the goal of life will become difficult thing to be reached since there are many problems in human life. The problems in human life cannot be separated from thinking, feeling, and acting. Those are actually bringing up influence for the literary work. Literary works is as an expression of the author‟s feeling and emotion because literature arises from an author who lives as human being. Therefore, literature closely related to
psychology in understanding human being including experiences facing the life.
There are many literary works, which rise psychological aspect
such as Oliver Twist movie. Oliver Twist is one of Roman Polanski‟s films
that illustrate of worse experience on children, particularly on their
psychological sphere. It tends showing effect on Oliver‟s psychology, how
Oliver is able to face feelings of personal inferiority in social life. Roman
Polanski is a director who reflects condition children in the social life,
which may be dangerous for them. In other word, there is a feeling that
social life in addition the world is a dangerous place for children‟s
Roman Polanski was born on August 18, 1933 in Paris, France. He
was orphaned at the age of 8 when his parents were sent to a concentration
camp during World War II. He comes from poor native Poland‟s family. He
grew up in wartime Europe and was sent to the Jewish ghetto in Krakow. He
lived in poor and uncertain condition where is insecure for him. This
condition reflects his works as director of film such as Oliver Twist, a film is
risen from Charles Dickens‟ classical novel. Oliver Twist is a movie which
is happy and kindness ending. Polanski not only directs Oliver Twist but
also a lot of films. The other films directed by Polanski are Knife in the
Water published in 1962, a film which gets Oscar-nominated. Then Polanski
moved to England, where he directed his English-language film, Repulsion
in 1965. He further wrote and directed his successful film Rosemary’s Baby
in 1968 and Chinatown in 1974. Next, he directed Death and Maiden in
1994 and the top prize for The Piannist published in 2002 (Brenan, 2010).
Later, the director realized a long held ambition Dickens‟ classic novel
Oliver Twist, which is analyzed in this research.
Oliver Twist movie was published in France. This movie tells
about an orphan in 19 century Britain, who can escape from his downfall,
pain, and poor. He brought up in workhouse where such boys were retained.
He was beaten and abused the workhouse. He was beaten and abused the
workhouse. Finally, he can lead to his escape from the awful place. Oliver
runs away and travels seventy miles to London on foot. There, he meets
Artful Dodger who offers him food and lodging with Fagin, a master thief
who trains young boys to be pickpockets. Oliver comes beneath the refuge
of Mr. Brownlow, where is kidnapped again by Sikes, one of the criminals
of Fagin‟s gang (Hakeem, 2005).
Next, Nancy who feels sympathize to Oliver tries to help him, but
Sikes stab her to death and Sikes is killed when he accidentally hangs
himself while fleeing across a rooftop from an angry crowded people. This
happening influences Oliver‟s psychology as a child in immature. He is as
young children faced feeling helplessness. “The child makes comparison
with other children and the demands of the social world” (Adler in
Cloninger, 2009: 101). Social life and environmental demand can emerge a
sense of inferiority that may be avoided by children, additionally; they are
small and limited in their knowledge about the world. In this story, Oliver
can lead to his escape from the awful place since there is a kind man who
helps him. Oliver Twist ends on a happy note.
Oliver Twist movie is made based on the 1838 novel of the same
title by Charles Dickens. Oliver Twist involves a 2005 British drama film
which setting of place in London and setting of time in 1830s. The period is
the poor condition in England. The film released in the United States on
September 30, 2005, duration is 2 hours 10 minutes, and distributed by Sony
Tristar. This film spends $ 60 million and become an Academy Awards
winning movie. The appreciation is Oliver Twist’s success that cannot be
separated from the best cast and crews. The cast presents actors such as
Barney Clark as Oliver Twist, Ben Kingsley as Fagin, and Jamie Foreman
as Bill Sikes. Besides that, the best crews who make the film to become a
great film such as Roman Polanski as director, Pawel Edelman as director of
photography, Allan Starski as production designer, Ronald Harwood as the
screenplay, Herve De Luze as editor, Celestia Fox as production designer
casting, producer are Robert Benmussa, Alain Sarde, and Roman Polanski,
costume designer is Anna Sheppard, make up is Didier Lavergne, and music
is Rachel Portman.
The film involved 90 days of photography that was designed by
Allan Starski and built at Barrandov studios in Prague. There were more
than 85 buildings, 5 streets, and a little stretch of river. Beside Oliver twist‟s
success, Oliver Twist is also criticized by public for portraying thieves and
prostitutes at all. Much argued, the film can influence the psychological
condition of people even children in their development because Oliver
emerges to Victorian viewers‟ sentiments. So, the story of film also gives
impact for a better change of people‟s point of view.
Oliver Twist is an interesting movie to be discussed; there are four
aspects that make this film interesting. The first is Oliver takes up the strong
emotional through an innocent character, Oliver who faced with the sinful
environment. Each character is described in the most details and they are
extremely colorful. Director develops into the characters to be easy known
and understood through the performance of actors. The characters of course
supported by cast that present their best performance. Barney Clark who
plays as Oliver Twist is a good child actor. Director, Polanski makes Barney
to become the friendliness and innocence of the character. He shows
Oliver‟s performance naturally as an orphan boy in early 1800s England.
There is also Leanne Rowe as Nancy who absolutely steals the show. She is
wonderful actress who comes out as Oliver‟s guardian angel also naturally.
The accepted character of Nancy appeared based on her empathy toward
children. This is interesting because character Nancy doesn‟t emerge
suddenly as unfamiliar character. Polanski takes the rescuer character from
the nearest one of Oliver. So, the characters as if really become the real
character in the actors‟ life.
The second aspect is the nuance and the reflection of the movie.
The film portrayed poverty, pain, crime, joy, and orphan in London. This
nuance used to criticize public policy toward the poor in 1830s England.
Director uses character and situation to challenge the Victorian idea that
poverty and criminals are still liberated. The nuance in the film also can
persuade the audience heart strings with his version of the eternal childhood
story of the orphan. One cannot run away comparison of Polanski‟s life with
that of Oliver Twist. Polanski was an orphan, he grew up without parents at
exactly the same age as Oliver, and Polanski also lived in the country, going
from family to family and place to place. So, there is some of that feeling
that he can sympathize with. This life‟s experience reflected on his an
adaptation film that he masters overall details in the film. Thus, the result of
film can appear a great story with colorful characters, good natured and rich
environment without leaving an original narration.
The third aspect is an interesting visualization of the movie.
Director makes the film to be bigger than life. This applied to sets,
costumes, make up, lighting, lenses, and everything. The lighting on the
street, indoor, and costume make everything together to form a perfect
entrance through which is seen in the world of Oliver Twist. Director also
gives touch of visual perfection using cinematography to convey the story
and showing the world from a child‟s point of view. Much of Oliver Twist
takes place at night and in softly interiors. The night gives an impression
that London includes fog, smoke, clouds and wet rain, while the interiors
look simple, but they are quite complicated. Polanski can show the image a
unique richness in each property and setting of place such as a busy London
street. Those are the appropriate combination to result a fantastic film taken
in line with an old world England.
The last is the psychological condition reflected in Oliver Twist.
There is a social problem that affects the psychological condition of
Children, especially Oliver. In Oliver Twist, there is an image of
psychological danger, which appears because of social demand. Poverty,
crime, suffering, and also orphan are problems portrayed in this film. Those
problems produce weak feeling in the children‟s personality in facing social
life. This movie also presents the issue of parents‟ influence on children‟s
development, particularly major character (Oliver Twist). Oliver was born
as an orphan who is poor. It may develop feelings of psychological
inferiority. On the other hand, these lacking condition affect his ability to
get affection and esteem from others. It can be known Oliver Twist Movie
has closely related to psychological aspect reflected in each character.
Based on the story of the film, the writer is interested in doing the
research on the problem of Oliver Twist by using Individual Psychological
Approach focusing on the inferiority feeling of Oliver Twist influencing his
personality. The writer conducts a research entitled: INFERIORITY
FEELING OF OLIVER TWIST IN ROMAN POLANSKI’S OLIVER
TWIST MOVIE: AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH.
B. Literature Review
As far as the writer knows, there are two researchers who analyze
Oliver Twist movie. The first research was conducted by Andhika (UMS,
2009) entitled “Anxiety of Oliver Twist in Charles Dickens‟s The
Adventures of Oliver Twist: A Psychoanalytic Approach”. From the result
of data analysis, he found anxiety of Oliver Twist influences his id to do
something under his unconscious. He also concludes that as the work of
Ego, Oliver Twist fulfills the id demand. Nevertheless, his superego can
differentiate what it true and false.
The second research was Noviana (UMS, 2008) entitled “Struggle
for Life Reflected in Charles Dickens‟ Oliver Twist: An Individual
Psychological Approach”. She found that the struggle for life of Oliver
Twist comes from his fictional finalism and it supported by his inferiority
feeling. It makes his strive to reach the superiority and power in emerging
the struggle for life but his strive to superiority goes in wrong way.
This research will be different from literature review since the
writer analyzes the feeling of inferiority influencing the major character
(Oliver Twist). This research entitled “Inferiority Feeling of Oliver Twist in
Roman Polanski‟s Oliver Twist Movie: An Individual Psychological Approach”.
C. Problem Statement
The problem statement of this study is “How is inferiority feeling
of Oliver Twist is reflected in Roman Polanski‟s Oliver Twist?”
D. Limitation of the Study
In this research, the writer will limit the study on the analysis of the
inferiority feeling that influence the personality of Oliver Twist in Roman
Polanski‟s Oliver Twist viewed by Individual psychological Approach.
E. Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study are as follows:
1. To analyze the movie based on its structural elements of the movie.
2. To analyze the main character‟s personality based on the individual
F. Benefit of the Study
The benefits expected from the study are as follows:
1. Theoretical Benefit
The result of this research will give contribution to the world of
literature, beside development; especially in the study of “Roman
Polanski‟s Oliver Twist”.
2. Practical Benefit
This study is expected to give deeper understanding about the movie
especially in individual psychological approach.
G. Research Method
1. Type of the Study
The research of this study is qualitative research, which takes the
sources data from words and other written text.
2. Object of the Study
The object of the study is Oliver Twist Movie directed by Roman
Polanski. It is analyzed by using individual psychological approach.
3. Types of the Data and the Data Source
a. Primary Data Source of the study is the movie itself: Oliver Twist
movie by Roman Polanski.
b. Secondary Data Source is taken from other sources such as internet,
article, book, author‟s biography, essay, comments, criticism, and
other relevant information.
4. Technique of the Data Collection
The data collecting technique used in the study are as follows:
a. Watching the movie for the several times.
b. Reading the script of movie.
c. Determining the character that will be analyzed.
d. Taking notes of important parts in both primary and secondary
e. Classifying and determining the relevant data.
f. Taking notes from the material and some other resources related to
the movie and the analysis.
5. Technique of the Data Analysis
The technique used in analyzing the data is descriptive analysis. It
involves with the structural elements of the movie and individual
H. Research Paper Organization
In order to make the research is easier to follow; the research paper
is organized into five chapters. Chapter I is Introduction covering
background of the study, literary review, problem statement, limitation of
the study, objectives of the study, benefit of the study, research method, and
the research paper organization. Chapter II presents Underlying Theory. It
deals with notion of individual psychology, basic assumption of individual
psychology, structural elements of the movie, and theoretical application.
Then, Chapter III is Structural Analysis of Oliver Twist movie; (1) The
structural Elements of Oliver Twist movie; It consists of structural elements
of Oliver Twist movie including character and characterization, setting, plot,
point of view, style, theme, and technical elements of the movie; (2)
Discussion. Chapter IV presents Individual Psychological Analysis of
Oliver Twist movie, which deals with the analysis of the problems‟ movie
that is related with the theory. There is also discussion in this chapter.
Chapter V includes Conclusion and Suggestion.