Definition, Indicators, Factors, Types of Perception

Definition of Perception 

Perception is the way a person sees or interprets something. Hasnidar (2019) describes perception from the Latin percipio, known  as the corporation, as well as the classification and analysis of sensory data in order to represent and comprehend the environment. All perception involves the transmission of signals through the nervous system, which results from either chemical or physical activation of the  sensory system. For comparison purposes, vision is caused by  illumination reaching the eye's retina, tasting by odor molecules, and  listening by sound pressure, Goldstain (2009). Perception as a method  refers to placing massages or data in the human brain  (Masfufah, 2020). This indicates that perception occurs after people  pay attention to specific stimuli in their visual experiences. 

Indicators of Perception  

There are three kinds of perception indicators according to Robbin  (2003:124-130): 

1) Acceptance  

In the physiology stage, the process of acceptance or  reabsorption is an indicator of perception; it is about the feature of  the five senses in grasping external stimulus. This implies that the  individuals' information will be sucked up or accepted by the five  senses, which include sight, hearing, smell, and taste, individually  or collectively. 

2) Understanding 

It refers to the findings of an analysis that are subjective or  unique to each individual.  

3) Evaluation  

A stimulus from the outside that has been grasped by the  senses and then evaluated by individuals is referred to as  evaluation. This assessment is highly subjective. Each individual in  the environment will have different perceptions. One person rates a  stimulus as tricky and boring, while another person rates the same  stimulus as good and pleasant.

Factor of Perceptions 

Six factors significantly affect perception (Gibson,  2009: 98-101): 

1) Stereotyping is the method used to classify people or things using a  limited number of structures. 

2) Selectivity is the main factor why different people interpret things  differently. 

3) Self-Concept is intended to express how an individual thinks about  and perceives him or herself. 

4) Situations that include the student's previous experience can influence the way that he or she perceives, and also the situation here refers to time as well as the people around. 

5) Needs Individuals' perceptions can be highly influenced by their needs. As a result, students will learn what they would like to  understand. 

6) Emotions When students believe they will stand to gain from something, they are more likely to form a favorable opinion. d. Aspect of Perception  

Educational activity is divided into three aspects (Bloom, 1956): 1) Cognitive Aspects 

The cognitive domain objectives concern understanding recall or recognition, as well as the growth of intellectual skills and  competencies. This is the domain most crucial to many recent test 

project implementations. It is the domain where most program  development work has been done, and where the simplest  meanings of objectives can be discovered and phrased as  explanations of student behavior. 

2) Affective Aspects 

The affective domain is the second component. It includes  goals that describe shifts in interest, attitudes, and values, as well  as the innovation of recognition and appropriate adjustment. The  affective aspect is more about how the stimulus makes the person  feel, which means that the stimulus can be concerned or realized.  Also, the affective element is part of a person's state that has to do  with how they feel about something, and an inadequate evaluation  is always based on how someone feels. 

3) Conative Aspects 

The conative aspect is having an influence over how others  feel (Dennis et al., 2013). How a person's view of a situation  affects his motivation, attitude, behavior, or actions. It was further  explained that a person's beliefs and feelings largely influence that  person's attitude or behavior. 

Based on the above statement, several aspects usually occur based  on individual attitudes, impressions, and motivational activities or  behaviors that typically happen in learning activities.

Type of Perception 

Perceptions are classified into two types (Irwanto, 2002). They are  positive and negative perceptions, which will be explained in the  following description: 

1) Positive Perception 

Positive discernment is when all of the data is expressed positively. Furthermore, positive Perception is an accurate translation that implies people observing something around them.  If someone has positive recognition in this case, they will  recognize and support the reported question.. 

2) Negative Perception 

The negative perception is discernment expressing data negatively or dissatisfied with the question under consideration.  Furthermore, negative Perception refers to negative explanations that entice people to pass judgment on something around them. In  this case, if someone has a negative view, they will refuse and deny  any observed effort.

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