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Material for Crafting Cohesion and Coherence in Academic Writing


Language is essentially a means of communication among the members of a society. The purpose of this paper is to show that a common language is one of the most important features of a community. The need to communicate triggers both the occurrence and the development of a language and this need arises and becomes stronger and stronger when one has someone else to communicate with, i.e. where there is a society. In terms of linguistics, the study of language is a multidisciplinary endeavour. Communication takes place not only orally, but also in writing. It is this plurality of aspects in studying the same object that makes language a perpetual phenomenon.


Language is a means of communication that is used to transfer information, ideas, and feelings from one person to another. Language is also a system of communication based upon words and the combination of words into sentences. By using language, people can develop their knowledge and know about something.

Cameron, Lynne. (2003). Teaching Languages to Young Learners. System. 31. 10.1016/S0346-251X(03)00040-X.

 As a means of communication English has been accepted as the global language among the speakers of thousands of different languages. Since science and technology is progressing, there are tremendous changes taking place in the lives of the human beings everywhere in the world. As a result, the whole world has become a global village and the people have to maintain good relationship with the others.

Rao, Parupalli. (2019). THE ROLE OF ENGLISH AS A GLOBAL LANGUAGE. 4. 65-79.

There is worldwide recognition that English is spreading around the world at an increasing rate. Kachru & Nelson (1996) state that “English is the most widely taught, read, and spoken language that the world has ever known” (p.71). The rapidly increasing English speakers and usage has resulted in types of varieties and speakers on which Kachru bases his three concentric inner, outer and expanding circles, which constitutes one definition of World Englishes. According to them, inner circle countries are USA, UK, Australia, Canada, New Zealand or where English is spoken as the first or native language. Outer circle countries include those where English is a second language (ESL), and which have developed their own norms of English, or norm-developing countries, resulting in different varieties like Singaporean English, Indian English, Malaysian English, English in South African, and so forth. Meanwhile, expanding circle countries are those where English is a foreign language (EFL) – not used in immediate communication but studied for specific purposes (e.g. trade and access to higher education), and taught and learned with reference to Standard English, namely British (BE) or American (AE) English -or norm-dependent (Kachru, 1985 as cited in Holmes, 2008, p. 79-80), like Indonesia.

Kachru, B. B., & Nelson, C. L. (1996). World englishes. Sociolinguistics and language teaching11, 71-102.

Pertaining to the context that English is an international language, there are four skills in teaching and learning English: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those skills are related to each other and cannot be independent; therefore, learners need to master all of the four skills. This is supported by Uma and Ponnambala (2001)  in Cakrawati (2012) who state that mastering language  skills will determine the students’ communicative competence in the target language.

Uma, J. C., & Ponnambala, T. (2001). Teaching writing skill through silent movie: An experiment. Indian Journal of Open Learning, 10(1), 93-99. ISSN 0971-2690. India: Indira Gandhi National Open University. Downloaded on March 2020.

Among the four skills in English, writing is still considered as the most difficult skill compared to the other three skills, speaking, listening, and reading. As Richard and Renandya (2002:303) state that there is no doubt that writing is the most difficult skill for learners to master. In line with Richard and Renandya (2002), Broughton et al (2003) and Taylor (2009) state that writing is extremely difficult for students. The difficulty of writing lies not only in generating and organizing of ideas but also in developing these ideas into readable texts.

original source:

Broughton, G., Brumfit, C., Flavell, R., Hill, P., Pincas, A. (2003). Teaching English as A Second Language. London: Taylor & Francis e-Library.

Richard, C. Jack and Renandya, A. Willy. (2002). Methodology in Language Teaching. USA: Cambridge University Press

Taylor, G. (2009). A Students’ Writing Guide: How to Plan and Write Successful Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press


Among the four skills in English, speaking skills is still considered as the most difficult skill compared to the other three skills, speaking, listening, and reading. Study about speaking skill in a country that puts English as foreign language in this study is Indonesia has a limitation. This phenomenological observation has a purpose to report Indonesian EFL learners’ experiences in speaking English at an Indonesian private university of undergraduate program of English Education Department in Yogyakarta. The data gained from questionnaires and semi-structured interviews discovered from five participants. The researcher prepared this research analysis based on dialogue around Indonesian EFL learners’ views and the answer from the questionnaire about speaking skill challenges. This research evaluation revealed topics and sub-topics (1) language boundaries (vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, fluency and the effect of mother tongue); (2) psychological elements (anxiety); (3) Proponent Factors (friends and low or uneven participation); (4) topics of conversation (ignorance and unattractive topics) and (5) speaking practice (practicing with media and practicing with friends). The findings display that every topics and sub-topics look like interconnected with each other.

Pratolo, B., Habibie, A., & Setiawan, A. (2019, November). Speaking Skill Challenges Encountered by Indonesian EFL Learners’. In 2019 Ahmad Dahlan International Conference Series on Education & Learning, Social Science & Humanities (ADICS-ELSSH 2019) (pp. 160-164). Atlantis Press.

EFL Students' Challenges in Learning Speaking Skills: A Case Study in Mechanical Engineering Department

Aisha Ganesh Ratnasari

Nowadays, speaking mastery is important due to the position of English as a universal language (Nazara, 2011). This research used a case study as the research design, which aimed to answer the research questions such as challenges faced by the students in learning speaking skills and strategies implemented by the students to overcome the challenges. There were three participants in this research, namely two Mechanical Engineering Department, Olaf and Elsa, and one English teacher in the Mechanical Engineering Department, Anna. The data obtained were through interviews and students’ speaking grades through classroom presentations. The result showed four challenges, such as lack of vocabulary, nervousness, unsupportive environment, and lack of grammar knowledge. Besides, there were five strategies, such as codeswitching, seeing the audiences as the statues, using google translate machines, making a personal approach to the English teacher, and encouraging self.

Ratnasari, A. (2020). EFL Students' Challenges in Learning Speaking Skills: A Case Study in Mechanical Engineering Department. Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning, 5(1), 20-38. doi:




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