Examples of Hoffman and Poplack’s Analysis: code mixing and code switching

Carol Myers-Scotton and Shana Poplack are influential figures in the study of code-switching and code-mixing in sociolinguistics. While Myers-Scotton is known for her work on the Markedness Model and the Matrix Language Frame Model, Shana Poplack is known for her empirical research and the development of various theoretical frameworks. Here are some examples of Hoffman and Poplack's analyses of code-switching and code-mixing:

### Shana Poplack

1. **Function of Code-Switching**:

   Poplack (1980) identified different types of code-switching based on their functions. She distinguished between:

   - **Tag-Switching**: The insertion of a tag phrase from one language into an utterance in another language, e.g., "It's a beautiful day, ¿verdad?"

   - **Intersentential Switching**: Switching languages at sentence boundaries, e.g., "I'm going to the store. ¿Quieres venir?"

   - **Intrasentential Switching**: Switching languages within a single sentence, e.g., "I was going to la tienda to buy some bread."

2. **Constraints on Code-Switching**:

   Poplack proposed two main constraints on intrasentential code-switching:

   - **Equivalence Constraint**: Code-switching occurs at points where the surface structures of the languages coincide, allowing for smooth transitions, e.g., "I’ll start la clase when you’re ready."

   - **Free Morpheme Constraint**: Code-switching cannot occur between a bound morpheme and a lexical form unless the lexical form has been phonologically integrated into the language of the bound morpheme, e.g., "I’m eat-ing a taco."

### Charlotte Hoffman

Charlotte Hoffman's work often focuses on bilingualism and its manifestations in various communities, including code-switching and code-mixing. Here are some examples from her analyses:

1. **Code-Switching in Bilingual Communities**:

   Hoffman (1991) discusses how bilingual speakers use code-switching to achieve various conversational goals, such as emphasizing a point, showing solidarity, or clarifying a statement. For instance, in a bilingual Spanish-English community, a speaker might say, "I told him already, pero no me escuch√≥" (I told him already, but he didn’t listen to me).

2. **Sociolinguistic Factors Influencing Code-Switching**:

   Hoffman explores the sociolinguistic factors that influence code-switching, such as the speaker's proficiency in both languages, the social context, and the relationship between speakers. For example, a bilingual child might switch between languages depending on whether they are speaking to a family member or a teacher.

### Examples of Hoffman and Poplack’s Analysis:

- **In Montreal’s Bilingual Community**: Poplack’s studies often involve the French-English bilingual community in Montreal. An example from her research might be a sentence like, “Je suis all√© au store pour acheter des eggs” (I went to the store to buy some eggs), demonstrating intrasentential switching.

- **In Welsh-English Code-Switching**: Hoffman’s work includes studies of Welsh-English bilinguals. An example might be, “I’m going to siopa for some bread” (I’m going shopping for some bread), where “siopa” is a Welsh word integrated into the English sentence.

These examples illustrate how both Hoffman and Poplack analyze the structural and functional aspects of code-switching and code-mixing, providing insights into the linguistic and social dynamics of bilingual communication.

Appraisal and Ideology Realization in Indonesia State Capital Relocation News Texts


Document Type : Original Article


1 Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

2 Universitas Islam Negeri Salatiga, Indonesia


This study analyzes the language employed by Kompas, Republika, Media Indonesia, and Jawa Pos regarding the relocation of Indonesia’s capital city, focusing on attitude, graduation, and engagement. Eight online texts were analyzed using discourse analysis. This paper used systemic functional linguistics as a tool to analyze the texts. The findings revealed a predominance of positive attitude data (67.2% positive, 32.8% negative), predominantly heterogloss in engagement (91.8% heterogloss, 8.2% monogloss), and a majority of raising/sharpening graduation data (75.1% raising/sharpening, 24.9% lowering/softening). This disparity between positive and negative appraisal data signifies significant and contentious issues the government, community leaders, and the general public face concerning the capital city’s relocation. The results of news outlets analysis demonstrated how ideological orientations shape the construction of social and political values, influencing public beliefs and perceptions of the capital relocation project in Indonesia.


Hoffman and Poplack:theories to analyze code switching and code mixing in language use

 Hoffman and Poplack are two prominent linguists who have developed theories to analyze code switching and code mixing in language use. Here are the key differences between their theories:

### Hoffman's Theory

1. **Definition of Code Switching**: Hoffman defines code-switching as the alternate use of two languages or linguistic varieties within the same utterance or during the same conversation[3].

2. **Reasons for Code Switching**: Hoffman identifies several reasons for code-switching, including:

   - **Vocabulary Limitation**: Using a different language to express a concept that lacks a direct equivalent in the primary language.

   - **Prestige**: Using a language to convey prestige or social status.

   - **Practicing English Mastery**: Using English to improve proficiency in the language[3].

3. **Types of Code Switching**: Hoffman does not explicitly categorize types of code switching, but his theory focuses on the general phenomenon of code switching and its various reasons.

### Poplack's Theory

1. **Definition of Code Switching**: Poplack defines code switching as the process of switching between two languages or linguistic varieties within a single conversation, often involving the use of different linguistic features such as grammar, vocabulary, and phonology[2].

2. **Types of Code Switching**: Poplack categorizes code switching into three types:

   - **Inter-sentential Switching**: Switching between languages or varieties between sentences.

   - **Intra-sentential Switching**: Switching within a sentence, often involving the use of different linguistic features.

   - **Tag-Switching**: Switching between languages or varieties using a specific linguistic feature, such as a word or phrase[2].

3. **Reasons for Code Switching**: Poplack's theory does not specifically identify reasons for code switching, but it focuses on the structural and functional aspects of code switching in language use.

In summary, Hoffman's theory emphasizes the reasons and general phenomenon of code switching, while Poplack's theory focuses on the structural and functional aspects of code switching, categorizing it into different types.


[1] https://repository.iainpare.ac.id/id/eprint/4309/1/16.1300.049.pdf

[2] http://repository.upbatam.ac.id/1431/1/cover%20s.d%20bab%20III.pdf

[3] https://ejurnal.teknokrat.ac.id/index.php/teknosastik/article/download/128/98

[4] https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/languange/article/download/43601/27583

[5] https://eprints.unmas.ac.id/id/eprint/3605/2/R.263%20FBA-ING%20BAB%20I-II.pdf