Kamis, 08 Januari 2015

ESP ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSE DEFINITION DEVELOPMENT HISTORY ETC

Key Issues in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Curriculum Development


Based on insights gained from developing the curriculum for Language Preparation for Employment in the Health Sciences and a review of the literature on ESP, this paper is intended to offer theoretical support for ESL instructors developing ESP curricula for ESL contexts.
Background Information and Statement of Purpose

In late 1999, I was asked to develop a content-based curriculum for a ten-week course for a select group of immigrants living in Ottawa, Canada. The course was held at Algonquin College of Applied Arts and Technology and was funded by the Language for Employment Related Needs Project (LERN). The curriculum consisted of two distinct phases: language delivery and employment awareness. Although the employment awareness phase (independently developed and delivered by Local Agencies Serving Immigrants) was an integral component of the program, the focus of this paper is on insights gained from the language-delivery phase.
Dudley Evans and St. John (1998) identify five key roles for the ESP practitioner:

teacher
course designer and materials provider
collaborator
researcher
evaluator.
It is the role of ESP practitioner as course designer and materials provider that this paper addresses. The premise of this paper is based on David Nunan's observations about the teacher as a curriculum developer.


It seems fairly obvious that if teachers are to be the ones responsible for developing the curriculum, they need the time, the skills and the support to do so. Support may include curriculum models and guidelines · and may include support from individuals acting in a curriculum advisory position. The provision of such support cannot be removed and must not be seen in isolation, from the curriculum (Nunan, 1987, p. 75).
Nunan recognized that issues of time, skills and support are key for teachers faced with the very real task of developing curricula. The intent of this paper is to provide the ESL instructor as ESP course designer and materials provider with theoretical support. This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of ESP. Some key notions about ESP are then addressed:
absolute and variable characteristics
types of ESP
characteristics of ESP courses
the meaning of the word 'special' in ESP
Key issues in ESP curriculum design are suggested: a) abilities required for successful communication in occupational settings; b)content language aquisition versus general language aquisition; c) heterogeneous versus homogenous learner group; and d) materials development.
The Origins of ESP

Certainly, a great deal about the origins of ESP could be written. Notably, there are three reasons common to the emergence of all ESP: the demands of a Brave New World, a revolution in linguistics, and focus on the learner (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987).
Hutchinson and Waters (1987) note that two key historical periods breathed life into ESP. First, the end of the Second World War brought with it an " ... age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific, technical and economic activity on an international scale · for various reasons, most notably the economic power of the United States in the post-war world, the role [of international language] fell to English" (p. 6). Second, the Oil Crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-rich countries. The language of this knowledge became English.

The general effect of all this development was to exert pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods. Whereas English had previously decided its own destiny, it now became subject to the wishes, needs and demands of people other than language teachers (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987, p.7).

The second key reason cited as having a tremendous impact on the emergence of ESP was a revolution in linguistics. Whereas traditional linguists set out to describe the features of language, revolutionary pioneers in linguistics began to focus on the ways in which language is used in real communication. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) point out that one significant discovery was in the ways that spoken and written English vary. In other words, given the particular context in which English is used, the variant of English will change. This idea was taken one step farther. If language in different situations varies, then tailoring language instruction to meet the needs of learners in specific contexts is also possible. Hence, in the late 1960s and the early 1970s there were many attempts to describe English for Science and Technology (EST). Hutchinson and Waters (1987) identify Ewer and Latorre, Swales, Selinker and Trimble as a few of the prominent descriptive EST pioneers.

The final reason Hutchinson and Waters (1987) cite as having influenced the emergence of ESP has less to do with linguistics and everything to do psychology. Rather than simply focus on the method of language delivery, more attention was given to the ways in which learners acquire language and the differences in the ways language is acquired. Learners were seen to employ different learning strategies, use different skills, enter with different learning schemata, and be motivated by different needs and interests. Therefore, focus on the learners' needs became equally paramount as the methods employed to disseminate linguistic knowledge. Designing specific courses to better meet these individual needs was a natural extension of this thinking. To this day, the catchword in ESL circles is learner-centered or learning-centered.

Key Notions About ESP

In this discussion, four key notions will be discussed. They are as follows: a) the distinctions between the absolute and variable characteristics of ESP, b) types of ESP, c) characteristics of ESP courses, and d) the meaning of the word 'special' in ESP.
Absolute and Variable Characteristics of ESP

Ten years later, theorists Dudley-Evans and St John (1998) modified Strevens' original definition of ESP to form their own. Let us begin with Strevens. He defined ESP by identifying its absolute and variable characteristics. Strevens' (1988) definition makes a distinction between four absolute and two variable characteristics:
I. Absolute characteristics:
ESP consists of English language teaching which is:

designed to meet specified needs of the learner;
related in content (i.e. in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines, occupations and activities;
centred on the language appropriate to those activities in syntax, lexis, discourse, semantics, etc., and analysis of this discourse;
in contrast with General English.
II. Variable characteristics:
ESP may be, but is not necessarily:

restricted as to the language skills to be learned (e.g. reading only);
not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology (pp.1-2).
Anthony (1997) notes that there has been considerable recent debate about what ESP means despite the fact that it is an approach which has been widely used over the last three decades. At a 1997 Japan Conference on ESP, Dudley-Evans offered a modified definition. The revised definition he and St. John postulate is as follows:
I. Absolute Characteristics
ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner;
ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves;
ESP is centred on the language (grammar, lexis, register), skills, discourse and genres appropriate to these activities.
II. Variable Characteristics
ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines;
ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of general English;
ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for learners at secondary school level;
ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students;
Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system, but it can be used with beginners (1998, pp. 4-5).
Dudley-Evans and St. John have removed the absolute characteristic that 'ESP is in contrast with General English' and added more variable characteristics. They assert that ESP is not necessarily related to a specific discipline. Furthermore, ESP is likely to be used with adult learners although it could be used with young adults in a secondary school setting.
As for a broader definition of ESP, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) theorize, "ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner's reason for learning" (p. 19). Anthony (1997) notes that, it is not clear where ESP courses end and general English courses begin; numerous non-specialist ESL instructors use an ESP approach in that their syllabi are based on analysis of learner needs and their own personal specialist knowledge of using English for real communication.

Types of ESP

David Carter (1983) identifies three types of ESP:
English as a restricted language
English for Academic and Occupational Purposes
English with specific topics.
The language used by air traffic controllers or by waiters are examples of English as a restricted language. Mackay and Mountford (1978) clearly illustrate the difference between restricted language and language with this statement:
... the language of international air-traffic control could be regarded as 'special', in the sense that the repertoire required by the controller is strictly limited and can be accurately determined situationally, as might be the linguistic needs of a dining-room waiter or air-hostess. However, such restricted repertoires are not languages, just as a tourist phrase book is not grammar. Knowing a restricted 'language' would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in novel situation, or in contexts outside the vocational environment (pp. 4-5).
The second type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. In the 'Tree of ELT' (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987), ESP is broken down into three branches: a) English for Science and Technology (EST), b) English for Business and Economics (EBE), and c) English for Social Studies (ESS). Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches: English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). An example of EOP for the EST branch is 'English for Technicians' whereas an example of EAP for the EST branch is 'English for Medical Studies'.
Hutchinson and Waters (1987) do note that there is not a clear-cut distinction between EAP and EOP: "· people can work and study simultaneously; it is also likely that in many cases the language learnt for immediate use in a study environment will be used later when the student takes up, or returns to, a job" (p. 16). Perhaps this explains Carter's rationale for categorizing EAP and EOP under the same type of ESP. It appears that Carter is implying that the end purpose of both EAP and EOP are one in the same: employment. However, despite the end purpose being identical, the means taken to achieve the end is very different indeed. I contend that EAP and EOP are different in terms of focus on Cummins' (1979) notions of cognitive academic proficiency versus basic interpersonal skills. This is examined in further detail below.

The third and final type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English with specific topics. Carter notes that it is only here where emphasis shifts from purpose to topic. This type of ESP is uniquely concerned with anticipated future English needs of, for example, scientists requiring English for postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in foreign institutions. However, I argue that this is not a separate type of ESP. Rather it is an integral component of ESP courses or programs which focus on situational language. This situational language has been determined based on the interpretation of results from needs analysis of authentic language used in target workplace settings.

Characteristics of ESP Courses

The characteristics of ESP courses identified by Carter (1983) are discussed here. He states that there are three features common to ESP courses: a) authentic material, b) purpose-related orientation, and c) self-direction.
If we revisit Dudley-Evans' (1997) claim that ESP should be offered at an intermediate or advanced level, use of authentic learning materials is entirely feasible. Closer examination of ESP materials will follow; suffice it to say at this juncture that use of authentic content materials, modified or unmodified in form, are indeed a feature of ESP, particularly in self-directed study and research tasks. For Language Preparation for Employment in the Health Sciences, a large component of the student evaluation was based on an independent study assignment in which the learners were required to investigate and present an area of interest. The students were encouraged to conduct research using a variety of different resources, including the Internet.

Purpose-related orientation refers to the simulation of communicative tasks required of the target setting. Carter (1983) cites student simulation of a conference, involving the preparation of papers, reading, notetaking, and writing. At Algonquin College, English for business courses have involved students in the design and presentation of a unique business venture, including market research, pamphlets and logo creation. The students have presented all final products to invited ESL classes during a poster presentation session. For our health science program, students attended a seminar on improving your listening skills. They practiced listening skills, such as listening with empathy, and then employed their newly acquired skills during a fieldtrip to a local community centre where they were partnered up with English-speaking residents.

Finally, self-direction is characteristic of ESP courses in that the " ... point of including self-direction ... is that ESP is concerned with turning learners into users" (Carter, 1983, p. 134). In order for self-direction to occur, the learners must have a certain degree of freedom to decide when, what, and how they will study. Carter (1983) also adds that there must be a systematic attempt by teachers to teach the learners how to learn by teaching them about learning strategies. Is it necessary, though, to teach high-ability learners such as those enrolled in the health science program about learning strategies? I argue that it is not. Rather, what is essential for these learners is learning how to access information in a new culture.

The Meaning of the Word 'Special' in ESP

One simple clarification will be made here: special language and specialized aim are two entirely different notions. It was Perren (1974) who noted that confusion arises over these two notions. If we revisit Mackay and Mountford's restricted repertoire, we can better understand the idea of a special language. Mackay and Mountford (1978) state:
The only practical way in which we can understand the notion of special language is as a restricted repertoire of words and expressions selected from the whole language because that restricted repertoire covers every requirement within a well-defined context, task or vocation (p. 4).
On the other hand, a specialized aim refers to the purpose for which learners learn a language, not the nature of the language they learn (Mackay & Mountford, 1978). Consequently, the focus of the word 'special' in ESP ought to be on the purpose for which learners learn and not on the specific jargon or registers they learn.
Key Issues in ESP Curriculum Design

In this section, key issues in ESP curriculum design for ESL contexts are examined. The issues explored here are a product of my professional experience developing the curriculum for Language Preparation for Employment in the Health Sciences. This experience has been supported with a review of the literature on ESP.
Abilities Required for Successful Communication in Occupational Settings

Cummins (1979) theorized a dichotomy between basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). The former refers to the language skills used in the everyday informal language used with friends, family and co-workers. The latter refers to a language proficiency required to make sense of and use academic language. Situations in which individuals use BICS are characterized by contexts that provide relatively easy access to meaning. However, CALP use occurs in contexts that offer fewer contextual clues.
After having developed and taught the curriculum for Language Preparation for Employment in the Health Sciences, I have reached the conclusion that there are three abilities necessary for successful communication in a professional target setting. I have added a third skill or ability to Cummins' theory in order to complete the ESP picture.

The first ability required in order to successfully communicate in an occupational setting is the ability to use the particular jargon characteristic of that specific occupational context. The second is the ability to use a more generalized set of academic skills, such as conducting research and responding to memoranda. With the health science group, this was largely related to understanding a new culture. The third is the ability to use the language of everyday informal talk to communicate effectively, regardless of occupational context. Examples of this include chatting over coffee with a colleague or responding to an informal email message.

The task for the ESP developer is to ensure that all three of these abilities are integrated into and integrated in the curriculum. This is a difficult task due to the incredible amount of research required. Close collaboration between content experts and the curriculum developer was not possible during the development stages for the health science curriculum. In retrospect, the experience and knowledge of health science faculty would have lessened the workload in this area tremendously. Fortunately, there does exist a wealth of information on academic and general language skills. The trick involved in the interweaving process is to develop a model that best integrates the restricted repertoire with the academic and general for the learners in question.

In the case of Language Preparation for Employment in the Health Sciences, there were so many possible potential future occupational settings to research and I had to cope with limited development time. I simply opted to identify academic skills that were transferable to most health science occupational settings. This required an inventory of all possible health science occupations, identification of the past occupational experiences of the learners in the pilot program, and identification of academic language skills. All of this information was then cross-referenced with the general language objectives for the identified group of learners.

It is my opinion that because ESP requires comprehensive needs analysis and because the learning-centred curriculum is not static, it is impossible to expect that the developer be in a position to identify the perfect balance of the abilities noted above for any particular group of learners. In reality, a large part of this responsibility is that of the instructors; it is the instructors who are in the best position to identify changing learner needs and who are in the best position to ensure that all students receive a balanced diet of language.

Content Language Acquisition Versus General Language Acquisition

When I first received the proposal for the health science pilot program, the ratio of content to language instruction had already been identified: 2 hours of content lecture for every 23 hours of language/content instruction. Given this starting point, one of the central questions that needed to be answered was how much time would be devoted to vocabulary and content knowledge acquisition, as opposed to the time spent developing general and academic language skills.
Although a tentative balance was drafted prior to classroom delivery, the balance shifted on a daily basis. In the end, it was determined by both instructors that more time need be allotted for pure content and more time need be created for team-taught activities. The final weekly breakdown of 25 hours consisted of the following:

8 hours of Integrated Language Learning (ESL instructor)
6 hours of Health Science Lectures (content instructor)
4 hours of Workplace Communication (jointly facilitated)
3 hours of Medical terminology (content instructor)
2 hours of Pathophysiology (content instructor)
2 hours of Applied Computer Skills (ESL instructor)
The first thing that is apparent from this breakdown, is that time devoted to developing general language and academic skills far outweighs the time devoted to the acquisition of content knowledge. However, it was recommended that the content instructor be present for a considerable more amount of time; it was observed that there was such an overlap between content knowledge, academic proficiency, and general language that we could better interweave many of the activities as a team.
The learners indicated that they desired more opportunity to interact with the content instructor, in addition to attending the old-style lecture format. Indeed, both instructors noted that the students were highly motivated to attend the content lectures and yet additional support from the ESL instructor was required because, in order to meet the learners' needs, we could not teach the restricted repertoire in isolation. What is more, it was highly unreasonable to assume that the content instructor would take on the role of ESL instructor.

Finally, it was observed that the majority of the students with post-secondary training in the health sciences possessed a basic knowledge of Greco-Latino terminology. Consequently, we determined that less time would be devoted to learning terminology in order to follow the content lectures. Most of the students could already recognize meaning, but not produce it. It was determined that more time should be allotted for work on pronunciation and learning the spelling of health science terminology. Moreover, much more time would be spent on communication for the workplace; in this way, they students would be afforded ample opportunity to integrate and practice the restricted repertoire acquired in content lectures and the everyday language acquired in the language classes.

Heterogeneous Learner Group Versus Homogeneous Learner Group

There are a number of variables which characterize a heterogeneous learner group. I argue that variations in language level, prior education and work experience can be accommodated only to a certain extent. Minimum entrance standards must be established in the areas of language level, motivation, and prior education and experience. Most importantly, these standards must be strictly enforced at the time of placement.
Due to the limited time frame for the development of the health science pilot program curriculum and the fact that the program was scheduled to begin in the middle of the academic term, the minimum general language entrance requirement was dropped from high to low intermediate in order to generate a large enough pool of suitable candidates. Although no pre or post-test was to be administered by evaluation team, I was required to recruit twice the number of students to be admitted to the program: 20 students would be in the pilot group and 20 would be in the control group. In the end, 16 students formed each group. The result was that there were some genuinely intermediate students mixed in with a majority of high intermediate, and a few advanced students.

Based on observations of a four-week English for Business course, Yogman and Kaylani (1996) conclude that there appears to be a minimum proficiency level that is required for students to participate in predominately content-related activities. This supports my finding that those students who were struggling to catch up with general language proficiency simply found the content activities to be overwhelming.

One student in the health science program commented that she had to learn both the language and the content at the time. This particular student was at such a disadvantage because, whereas the other students were doctors and dentists, she had no prior education or work experience in health science. Another student was an experienced doctor, but possessed a very low level of language proficiency. Either case would have been frustrating for anyone. One strategy we began to employ was to have the intermediate students focus on developing their listening skills during the content lecture. Those students without the background knowledge, who possessed the language skills, were to ask for clarification from their peers or instructors. The advanced students were encouraged to record as much detail as possible, carry out supplemental reading that pertained to the lecture topics and to assist their peers whenever possible.

Materials Development

Do ESP textbooks really exist? This is central question Johns (1990) addresses. One of the core dilemmas he presents is that "ESP teachers find themselves in a situation where they are expected to produce a course that exactly matches the needs of a group of learners, but are expected to do so with no, or very limited, preparation time" (Johns, 1990, p. 91).
In the real world, many ESL instructors/ESP developers are not provided with ample time for needs analysis, materials research and materials development. There are many texts which claim to meet the needs of ESP courses. Johns (1990) comments that no one ESP text can live up to its name. He suggests that the only real solution is that a resource bank of pooled materials be made available to all ESP instructors (Johns, 1990). The only difference between this resource bank and the one that is available in every educational setting -- teachers' filing cabinets -- is that this one is to include cross-indexed doable, workable content-based (amongst other) resources.

It is my experience that this suggestion is not doable. If teachers are so pressed for time, will they have the time to submit and cross-index resources? Rather, I believe that there is value in all texts - some more than others. Familiarizing oneself with useful instructional materials is part of growing as a teacher, regardless of the nature of purpose for learning. Given that ESP is an approach and not a subject to be taught, curricular materials will unavoidably be pieced together, some borrowed and others designed specially. Resources will include authentic materials, ESL materials, ESP materials, and teacher-generated materials.

Note that an excellent point of departure for novice ESP curriculum developers is with lists of ESL publishers which have been made publicly available on-line. Browsing publishers' sites takes a few minutes, review copies can be requested immediately and copies can be sent express.

Concluding Remarks

This paper has discussed the origins of ESP, addressed key notions about ESP and examined issues in ESP curriculum design. The content of the paper was determined by a need identified based on my professional experience as an ESL instructor designing and delivering the content-based language program - Language Preparation for Employment in the Health Sciences. These issues, where possible, have been supported by current and pertinent academic literature. It is my sincerest hope that these observations will lend insight into the challenges facing the ESL instructor acting as ESP curriculum developer.
Selected References

Anderson, R., & Ausubel, D. (Eds.). (1965). Readings in the Psychology of Cognition. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Anthony, L. (1997). ESP: What does it mean? ON CUE. http://interserver.miyazaki-med.ac.jp/~cue/pc/anthony.htm Retreived April 6, 2000, from the World Wide Web.
Betts, G. (1985). Autonomous Learner Model for the gifted and talented. Greeley, CO: Autonomous Learning Publications and Specialists. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 268 708)
Carver, D. (1983). Some propositions about ESP. The ESP Journal, 2, 131-137.
Crandall, J. (Ed.). (1987). ESL through content-area instruction: Mathematics, science, social studies. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Regents.
Cummins, J. (1979). Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, 121-129.
Dudley-Evans, T., & St John, M. (1998). Developments in ESP: A multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Echevarria, J., & Graves, A. (1998). Sheltered content instruction: Teaching English-language learners with diverse abilities. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Huang, S., & Shanmao, C. (1996). Self-efficacy of English as a second language learner: An example of four learners. Bloomington, IN: Language Education Department, School of Education, Indiana University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 396 536)
Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes: A learning-centered approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Johns, A., & Dudley-Evans, T. (1991). English for Specific Purposes: International in scope, specific in purpose. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 297-314.
Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (1975). Learning together and alone: Cooperation, competition and individualization. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Johnson, R. (Ed.). (1989). The second language curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jones, G. (1990). ESP textbooks: Do they really exist? English for Specific Purposes, 9, 89-93.
Lomperis, A. (1998). Best practices in EOP/EPP: Steps in providing a program. http://my.voyager.net/azure/programI.html Retreived May 8, 2001, from the World Wide Web.
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
Mackay, R., & Mountford, A. (Eds.). (1978). English for Specific Purposes: A case study approach. London: Longman.
Mackay, R., & Palmer, J. (Eds.). (1981). Languages for Specific Purposes: Program design and evaluation. London: Newbury House.
McDonough, J. (1984). ESP in perspective: A practical guide. London: Collins ELT.
Nunan, D. (1987). The teacher as curriculum developer: An investigation of curriculum processes within the Adult Migrant Education Program. South Australia: National Curriculum Resource Centre.
Nunan, D. (Ed.). (1992). Collaborative language learning and teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Perren, G. (1974). Forward in Teaching languages to adults for special purposes. CILT Reports and Papers, 11, London: CILT.
Rogers, C. (1983). Freedom to learn for the 80's. Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill.
Sagliano, M., Stewart, T., & Sagliano, J. (1998). Professional training to develop content-based instruction in higher education. TESL Canada Journal, 16, 36-51.
Selinker, L., Tarone, E., & Hanzeli, V. (Eds.). (1981). English for Academic and Technical Purposes: Studies in honor of Louis Trimble. London: Newbury House.
Strevens, P. (1988). ESP after twenty years: A re-appraisal. In M. Tickoo (Ed.), ESP: State of the Art (pp. 1-13). Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Centre.
Stryker, S., & Leaver, B. (Eds.). (1997). Content-based instruction in foreign language education: Models and methods. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Taylor, C. (1986). Cultivating simultaneous student growth in both multiple creative talents and knowledge. In J.S. Renzulli (Ed.), Systems and models for developing programs for the gifted and talented (pp. 307-351). Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press.
VanPatten, B., & Lee, J. (1990). Second language acquisition - Foreign language learning. Avon: Multilingual Matters.
Yogman, J., & Kaylani, C. (1996). ESP program design for mixed level students. English for Specific Purposes, 15, 311-24.
The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VII, No. 10, October 2001
http://iteslj.org/
http://iteslj.org/Articles/Gatehouse-ESP.html




Some Issues in Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP)

Kornelia Choroleeva, Bulgaria
Kornelia Choroleeva is a senior lecturer at the University of Food Technologies, Bulgaria. She is interested in ELT methods, English for Specific Purposes, translation theory and practice, and sociolinguistics.
Menu

Introduction
Language learners’ needs
Classroom activities
Conclusion
References

Introduction

Linguists’ acknowledgement of the importance of English language learners’ purposes and needs with respect to the learning process has led to the development of the field of study known as English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Teachers and researchers dealing with ESP are interested in the peculiarities of the English language determined by the profession or branch of science where the language learners will function as second language users. Thus, it is possible to distinguish among English for Law, English for Tourism, Medical English, Business English, etc.

This subdivision of the English language is useful because it draws the attention to the fact that language cannot be taught or mastered in its entirety. That is why, an assertion of the type “I know Spanish” or “I speak perfect Spanish” is not only bold but also utterly fallacious because even native speakers cannot be deemed “to know” their mother tongue. Moreover, languages are not rigid constructs and are constantly subject to change.

The hierarchy of types of Special English presupposes the existence of language variations. Regionally or socially determined language variations are referred to as dialects. Degrees of formality account for stylistic differences. The combination of real-life situations where a language is used is characterized by “a special set of vocabulary (technical terminology) associated with a profession or occupation or other defined social group” [Spolsky: 33] which constitutes a specific jargon. This combination of situations, also termed domain, depends on social factors, namely the place where the interaction takes place, the topic, and the roles assumed by the interactants [ibid.].

Gramley and Pätzold [1992] point out that varieties of English are instances of registers which are classified mainly on the basis of field of discourse and purpose. Fields are determined by situations of use and can be subdivided almost ad infinitum, e.g.: science > natural science > biology > molecular biology, organic biology, cell biology, etc. This means that the boundaries of fields are quite elastic. The classification of Special English founded on purpose gives subtypes such as English for Occupational Purposes and English for Academic Purposes. English for Science and Technology belongs to the latter.  

Language learners’ needs

The study of language varieties narrows down the focus of linguistic enquiry, from which both teachers and language learners can benefit. Ideally, by identifying the domain where language is used, e.g.: the home, the workplace, the university, etc., including the social factors mentioned above, teachers will acquire an idea of what to teach and how to teach it. In the case of ESP, it should be kept in mind that Special English, albeit different from the so-called General English in terms of preference of some grammatical structures to others, stylistic characteristics, and field-specific vocabulary, has nevertheless inherited the patterns of word formation, syntactic and discourse organization from the larger system of language. This implies that: 1) the distinction between Special English and General English is not as clear-cut as it seems to be, and 2) the groundwork behind teaching ESP is provided by teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) and as a Foreign Language (TEFL).

All problems stemming from the questions as to what to teach and how to teach it apply both to teaching General English and teaching Special English. The difference is probably in the degree of problematicity. With ESP, these two questions are further complicated. The choice of content relevant to the purposes of learning becomes more difficult to make, partly because language teachers usually do not possess inside knowledge of the profession or science in which the language learners will function as second language users.

The first problem one encounters when teaching ESP is not why their students need English. It might help them to become good computer engineers, for instance. (Although passing examinations is often the only objective.) It is more problematic to find out how students will use English in the relevant setting. If the language learners are university students who go to lectures and seminars in English, they will probably have to develop their listening comprehension skills, they will need practice in writing term papers in English, giving oral presentations in English, etc. If the language learners need English for their present or future job, the teacher should be aware of what this job is supposed to be and what it will most probably entail.

Some authors [Tarone and Yule, 1989] suggest that needs analysis be conducted on the part of the teacher so that “the learners’ purposes in learning the second language” [ibid.: 40] are identified. If this can be done, teachers will know in what situations the learners will need the language as well as what kind of language-related activities are typical of these situations. The concept of “situation”, however, is not easily definable, as Widdowson [1973] points out. Moreover, what is important is to extract those features of the situation which are relevant to the communication process and which govern the choice of certain linguistic elements: “We do not want him [i.e. the language learner] to associate all of the language with just one situation: we want him to recognize which features of the situation are relevant in making particular linguistic elements appropriate ones to use.” [ibid.: 223]. Therefore, it is important to establish those features of the situation functioning as conditions which determine the communicative value of linguistic elements. Broadly speaking, what Widdowson [1973] proposes amounts to the following: 1) utilization of language learners’ existing knowledge, namely knowledge of the formal properties of English and extra-linguistic knowledge embracing knowledge of various sciences, and 2) an extension of language learners’ experience in language, that is in English and in their mother tongue. This means that language learners with some degree of formal instruction in English will be able to transfer what they know of the way their native language is used as a means of communication in science to the foreign language, i.e. to English. In this way, “English structures, previously manipulated as formal objects, can be used to fulfill functions previously only associated with the other language [i.e. the mother tongue]” [Widdowson, 1973: 228].

Needs analysis and the idea of language teaching materials based on linguistic functions, rather than structures, seem to be quite relevant to teaching ESP. However, needs analysis will be more superficial when learners share the same broader field of language usage and use but differ in their specializations. Consider a student specializing in commercial law and a student majoring in international law or two Food Technology students, one specializing in wine and beer production, the other one in the production of bread and baked goods. In both cases, teachers of English will probably stick to those areas of language usage and use which will be of help to both students and which characterize the broader field. This means that other areas will certainly be neglected and this is something teachers and learners are to be aware of.

A related problem is the degree to which ESP teachers are acquainted with the respective science or occupation. Are they aware of the functions bearing communicative value in specialized discourse? Teachers of English are not expected to be experts in every sphere of knowledge but their students do not always understand this. (This is quite applicable to some societies where teachers are perceived as omniscient figures in accordance with the traditional view that they are the ultimate authority in the classroom.) A simple proof is some students’ expectation that language teachers are obliged to know every single word in the dictionary and translate isolated words into and from the foreign language. Similarly, language learners studying Business English, for instance, might expect their teacher to know something about company types and their differences, company management, e-banking, etc. In addition, not all language teachers are acquainted with the linguistic conventions characterizing, let us say, business letters. It turns out that in the ESP classroom it is the language learners who possess the necessary real-world knowledge relevant to the language learning process. It is obvious that English teachers cannot amass all extra-linguistic knowledge they need to design a successful ESP syllabus. The question, which is rather a matter of degree, is evidently unanswerable: What is the minimal knowledge language teachers should have in order to choose content pertinent to the purposes of learning?

The question of field-specific extra-linguistic knowledge also applies to language learners studying some subtype of ESP because it is preferable for them to be at least basically acquainted with the profession or science they need the second language for. If they are university students, it is relevant to decide in which year of their university education they should be enrolled for the ESP course. Otherwise, it may turn out that English classes introduce specialized knowledge before the seminars and lectures in the respective discipline. This is an important decision since it seems that the greater the experience of the language learners in the given science or occupation, the less the pressure on the language teachers to possess a sufficient amount of field-specific knowledge. (Although such knowledge is only an advantage.)

It is obvious that ESP teachers have plenty of issues to address before picking up appropriate teaching materials. When dealing with university students, language teachers sometimes face the problem of designing an ESP syllabus for language learners whose General English proficiency is quite underdeveloped. In some cases, the situation is aggravated by students’ lack of sufficient specialized knowledge. Since language functions as a system, ESP cannot be taught in isolation, i.e. language learners are supposed to be able to communicate in English, however rudimentary their strategic competence may be. Very often the addressees of ESP courses are the so-called English language beginners. Depending on the science or occupation motivating the language learners, teaching ESP to beginners will be feasible in varying degrees. For example, with English language beginners majoring in Cheese Production, the language teacher cannot always use visual aids in the classroom. What kind of picture or photograph will he or she choose in order to elicit “This is whey”, let alone explain what whey is, or make the students identify the parts of cheese-making equipment? The language teacher might opt for an introductory language course first or base the course on an easier-to-grasp general-science content. See, for example, Luizova-Horeva’s [2010] textbook for freshman English language learners majoring in Food Technology and Food Engineering. In view of the students’ different majors, e.g.: Biotechnology, Fermentation Products Technology, Industrial Heat Engineering, etc., as well as their varying communicative abilities in English, the author has opted for a gradual introduction of specialized content:

“1. Going Places
2. Routines
3. The University
4. Geometrical Shapes
5. Measurement and Calculations
6. Descriptions
7. Objects and Functions
8. Actions in Sequence
9. Food and Drinks
10. Food Preparation Appliances
11. History and Inventions
12. At the Plant” [Luizova-Horeva, 2010: 3].

Language teachers also have to decide whether they can cooperate with specialists in the relevant fields of knowledge in order to design syllabi. Usually, this will not be possible due to time constraints at least but if it is, such specialists or professionals might help language teachers come up with a number of typical situations characterizing language usage and use in the specific field, complemented by basic jargon and text types, e.g.: memoranda, scientific abstracts, business letters, claims for just satisfaction, etc. Then, language teachers might design an ESP syllabus grounding it on the theoretical framework of a teaching method, e.g.: Total Physical Response, Audiolingual Method, Communicative Language Teaching, etc., or on a combination of several methods, depending on the language learners’ needs.

It should also be pointed out that language learners are not always aware of what they need to learn in the second language. Therefore, it might be more expedient to couple the language learners’ needs analysis with the study of individuals who have already begun to use the second language to communicate in their job or enhance their professional development in the field in which the language learners will need the second language.

Classroom activities

Having conducted needs analysis, ESP teachers are to decide what kind of classroom activities are most suitable for the language learners with respect to their age, their present or future career development, their needs and their expectations regarding the learning process. The issue here is whether these activities should be based on a concrete teaching method. If so, which one should the language teacher select as most appropriate? Are innovative methods to be preferred to more traditional ones? It seems that teaching ESP can sometimes follow more downtrodden paths: a language teacher may choose to employ the Grammar Translation method if he or she knows that the language learners will need English not as a means of interpersonal communication but in order to update their professional knowledge by reading specialized literature. However, it might be better to adopt what Tarone and Yule [1989] describe as an eclectic approach. It consists in picking procedures, exercises, and techniques from different methods. This is what is actually done with mixed-ability groups of language learners because language teachers try to make their lessons useful to everybody in class.

Despite the possible disadvantage of devising “a hodgepodge of conflicting classroom activities assembled on whim rather than upon any principled basis” [ibid.: 10], the eclectic approach in ESP classes might not allow the development of one skill or ability to the detriment of another. Moreover, to disregard particular aspects of language usage and use in language teaching is potentially dangerous because language learners’ needs are not fixed or unchangeable. They are fluid and depend on social factors, especially on the roles individuals assume in their everyday lives, e.g.: student, father, computer engineer, etc. It also goes without saying that some skills and abilities are best mastered before or after other skills and abilities, e.g.: one cannot learn how to write business letters in English before learning to read and comprehend simple texts in this language.

Therefore, ESP teaching materials are likely to be more productive when they pay attention to both language usage and language use. According to Widdowson [1978], the former demonstrates the language user’s knowledge of linguistic rules, whereas language use manifests the language user’s ability to communicate effectively. Language use is thus connected with what has been defined as strategic competence: “the ability to transmit information to a listener and correctly interpret information received” together with the ability “to deal with problems which may arise in the transmission of this information” [Tarone and Yule, 1989: 103].

In ESP teaching materials, language usage is reflected in the presentation and drilling of those features considered typical of occupational or scientific discourse: field-specific vocabulary, adherence to certain conventions when structuring and composing written texts and participating in face-to-face interaction, syntactic and morphological constructions which are perceived to appear more frequently in such discourse. As regards EST, classroom activities focusing on language usage usually practice the Passive Voice, modal verbs, conditional sentences, the Simple Present Tense and the Simple Past Tense, the article, Greek and Latin plurals, specific patterns of word formation, etc. [see Gramley and Pätzold, 1992]. 

To disregard linguistic rules by focusing solely on communicative abilities is dangerous because the language learners might stop paying attention to rules if they think that they can communicate effectively without producing correct and appropriate utterances. Therefore, ESP teaching materials cannot disregard grammar altogether. The question is how linguistic rules should be presented, having in mind that they do not usually have a categorical character but a probabilistic one because more often than not there are exceptions. This is an example of how grammatical rules are traditionally presented: In English, monosyllabic adjectives form the comparative degree by adding –er; small is a monosyllabic adjective; hence, the comparative is smaller. The teacher usually goes on to explain that there are exceptions to the rule, e.g.: the comparative of good is not gooder, as the rule above implies, but better, etc. In turn, the deductive presentation of linguistic usage can be dangerous if it makes language learners arrive at wrong rules. It seems best, then, to present linguistic usage explicitly as regards word formation, syntactic and discourse organization (although with ESP formal knowledge of rules can be practiced in various ways, as will be seen below).  

The traditional way of presenting grammar has been widely criticized. See, for instance, Wilkins [in Coulthard, 1992] who raises the question as to how much attention should be paid to grammatical rules and proposes a functional-communicative syllabus based on the following six functions: judgement and evaluation; suasion; argument; rational enquiry and exposition; personal emotions; and emotive relations, each of which is sub classified [ibid.: 151]. Apart from the fact that it is not quite clear what a function is, one might ask oneself why the traditional way of dealing with linguistic usage, i.e. present > drill > practice in context [ibid.: 156], is perceived so inadequate, especially having in mind that so many have studied foreign languages “the old-fashioned way” and have achieved a satisfactory proficiency level.

Some authors, e.g.: Willis [in Coulthard, 1992], point out that some classroom activities such as discussion and role play are considered communicative but they are, in fact, pseudo-communicative. Subsumed under simulation, such activities are compared with replication ones, e.g.: solving problems or playing games, which are thought to create situations “in which there is a real need for communication in order to achieve something else” [ibid.: 158]. The so-called citation activities like repeating, combining, and transforming [ibid.: 157] are suggested as the second step in the learning process consisting in the sequence replication > citation > simulation [ibid.: 158], the stage at which certain linguistic items are taught explicitly and then practiced in simulation exercises. As an example is given a replication exercise “concerned with distinguishing and matching shapes” which “will naturally lead into citation exercises concerned with the specific lexis of size and shape and the grammar of nominal group structure” [Willis in Coulthard, 1992: 159].

Along these lines of thought, one wonders if it is at all possible to devise ESP classroom activities which imitate closely real-life communication. This cannot happen simply because these activities will be performed in the classroom. Teachers are unlikely to possess so much time and resources to be able to take their students to business meetings, production plants, chemistry laboratories, etc. in order to “plunge” them in real-life situations and monitor they way they communicate. In addition, the very presence of the teacher suggests artificiality.   

It also seems that simulation exercises are useful in ESP classes and are interesting to language learners. Provided that the teacher manages to control the topic, he or she may witness heated discussions in which students express a few of the functions Wilkins talks about. For law students, for example, it will be helpful to participate in mock trials in English for the same reason. Language learners forget the artificiality of the communication task if it is in accordance with their real-life interests. In this case, classroom activities will have a communicative outcome and will be brought closer to real-life situations.

The replication/citation/simulation sequence might prove to be suitable for some ESP classes, especially with some types of replication activities, as in Willis’s example, but it is unclear whether language teachers can apply replication exercises to everything they want to teach and with every language learner. If for various reasons the language learners do not have the capacity to perform the replication activity, e.g.: solve a mathematical problem, it will not lead “naturally” to the citation exercise introducing the lexis of mathematical operations. Language teachers might also face greater difficulties thinking of replication activities for mixed-ability groups of learners or a class of professionals working for the same company, in the same branch of industry, who do not share the same occupation.

It might be better to envisage a compromise via which language learners’ needs and expectations coupled with the purposes of each individual lesson will determine whether citation, replication, or simulation activities will be used. Certain aspects of grammar or communication might go well with specific types of activities. Coulthard [1992] makes a point that greetings, closings, invitations, and presequences can only be practiced through simulation. The communicative value of citation activities like transformation exercises, e.g.: turning sentences from Active into Passive Voice, and conversion exercises, e.g.: changing tenses, can be manifested by their contextualization. This appears to be applicable to teaching ESP, especially EST, because citation activities can be used to teach language learners to create various kinds of discourse units. Widdowson [1978], for example, talks about a procedure called gradual approximation consisting in the development of a series of simple accounts, considered to be genuine instances of discourse, their complexity gradually increasing. One of Widdowson’s suggestions is this:
1. the language learner is asked to do a completion exercise, e.g.: a sequence of topic-related sentences with present-tense forms of verbs to be provided; the sentences can be based on diagrammatically presented information such as a chart;
2. the language learner is asked to do a transformation exercise, e.g.: combine the completed sentences in pairs, one of them becoming relative clause;
3. the language learner is asked to create a simple account, i.e. arrange the sentences into a paragraph [ibid.]. Gradual approximation can be useful in ESP classes because it is based on a linguistic and a non-linguistic source of information, the former showing the language learner the linguistic usage and the latter the communicative context of the activity.

In teaching ESP, it seems that most motivating and productive is the strategy to use visual aids when possible because they invoke associations with the extra-linguistic reality determining the language learners’ needs to study Special English. Such exercises may necessitate extra-linguistic knowledge and will thus be less artificial communicatively if one follows the scale of artificiality mentioned above with reference to citation, replication, and simulation classroom activities. Visual aids include maps, tables, formulae, various types of charts, and pictures and photographs of objects, apparatus, etc. These are especially useful when teaching EST because they constitute some of the most typical means of presenting and organizing information in written scientific discourse. Here are some suggestions as to how to use visual aids in the ESP classroom.

Arranging terms in tables can be used to elicit vocabulary items and can be combined with the presentation of new lexis. For instance, the headings of the table columns may denote qualities of foods and learners may be encouraged to think of meals and drinks possessing these qualities. The activity can be combined with practice of the structures “I dislike/hate/detest/loathe/can’t stand… because it is (not)…” and “I like/love/adore…because it is (not)…”, e.g.:

lumpy
chewy
fizzy
sour
spicy
rank
cottage cheese
sweets
beer
lemon
curry
butter

Doing crossword puzzles may be used to recall definitions and specialized vocabulary. Crosswords refer to extra-linguistic knowledge and practice spelling. Here is an example of a task in which learners have to fill in the crossword in the way it is shown below:
“IV. Do the following crossword puzzle with words from the text.

Horizontally:
  1. lyophilisation, a method of drying in which the material is frozen and subjected to high vacuum (n.)
  2. a synonym of “constituent” (n.)
  3. a synonym of “appear” (v.)
  4. the verb denoting the mathematical operation in 4 : 2 = 2 (v.)
  5. scatter, spread; cause particles to separate uniformly throughout a solid, liquid, or gas (v.)
  6. the mutual influence of chemical agents (n.)
  7. the result of division; the number of times one quantity is contained in another (n.)
  8. water content, wetness (n.)
  9. release by secretion (v.)
  10. make a hole, pierce, perforate (v.)
  11.  the result of water evaporation (n.)
  12.  existing within the cell (adj.)
  13.  spoilage, e.g.: of food (n.)
  14.  immerse foods in salty solutions to protect them from spoilage (v.)
  15.  minute fungi on vegetable or animal matter (n.)
  16.  the quality of being hard and easily breakable, the opposite of being soft and wilted (n.)

Vertically: 1. You will get the group of methods protecting food from spoilage.” [Choroleeva, 2009: 16, 17].







1F
R
E
E
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E
D
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2C
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3O
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4D
I
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5D
I
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6R
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A
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7Q
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8M
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9S
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10P
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11V
A
P
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12I
N
T
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A
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E
L
L
U
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A
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13D
E
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A
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14P
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15M
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16C
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Alternatively, learners may be asked to create their own crosswords for other learners to solve.  

Drawing can be used to practice defining concepts or objects and to check listening or reading comprehension skills. For example, language learners may be asked to draw the object on the basis of the definition they hear or read, e.g.: This is a cone-shaped utensil with a tube at one end, or they may be given a picture or a photograph of the object in order to give a definition. In both cases, there is a non-verbal presentation of information and a transition from verbal to non-verbal mode or vice versa, a procedure Widdowson [1978] calls information transfer. Information transfer develops comprehension and interpreting when it is oriented from verbal to non-verbal mode; in the reverse direction, it practices writing and composing. Here is another example practicing lexis denoting shapes and location:
“Read this description and draw the diagram which it describes:
           
At the top of the diagram there are two horizontal parallel straight lines. At the bottom there is a horizontal spiral. In the middle there is a circle. On each side of the diagram there is a cross. There are two inverted triangles diagonally above the circle, one on the left, the other on the right. The triangles are below the parallel lines. In each triangle there is a dot. Above the spiral and below the circle there is a square.” [Bates and Dudley-Evans, 1976: 30].

Pictures or photographs can be used for learners to label constituent parts of apparatus and various objects or provide descriptions. Widdowson [1973] suggests an activity in which a specialized text is accompanied by an unlabelled diagram. The teacher may ask the class to read the text and label the diagram, i.e. transfer information from the text to the diagram, in order to check the learners’ reading comprehension skills.

Tarone and Yule [1989] offer another example of how language teachers can use pictures and photographs: “The speaker sees only one object (on video or in a photograph) and is instructed to describe that object so that the listener can identify the object from a set of similar objects.

The listener has a set of three photographs, labeled A, B, and C, and, following the speaker’s description, has to choose which one of the photographed objects is being described” [ibid.: 181].

Another option is to use pictures and photographs to illustrate sequences of events, as in “Read how the Tay Bridge collapsed. Match the sentences (1-5) with the diagrams (a-e) below” [White, 2003: 23]. Tarone and Yule [1989] suggest a task in which a language learner watches on video (or on the computer) how a process, such as the assembly of a piece of equipment, is being carried out and then has to give an account of the process for another learner. The latter is shown a set of several photographs related to the process. Some of the photographs depict stages in the process, others do not. The second language learner, being the listener in this task, has to choose only those photographs which are relevant to the described process.  

Maps and various types of charts can be used to check the language learners’ comprehension skills, to practice numbers, decimals, etc. The teacher may ask learners to read a text or a set of sentences on the basis of which they have to draw a map or label a chart. For example, learners might be given the following text titled Population:

“There were twelve point one million children aged under sixteen in two thousand: six point two million boys and five point nine million girls. This is fewer than in nineteen seventy-one, when there were fourteen point three million children. In two thousand, thirty per cent of children in the UK were under five, thirty-two per cent were aged five to nine years and thirty-eight per cent were aged ten to fifteen. These proportions were similar in the nineteen seventies.”

[White, 2003: 29]. The learners then have to label a bar chart showing the number of children in the UK in the respective years and a pie-chart illustrating the proportion of children in different age groups.

Concerning specialized terminology, language teachers must be aware that some terms are used in several fields of science and contextual presentation of sense, rather than dictionary meaning, is preferable. Also, it is easier to study vocabulary in context, not in isolation. Specialized terminology tends to be standardized and clear, not vague, which means that terms can be translated into the native language, so that no room is left for ambiguity.

Specialized and “catchy” vocabulary can be presented, for example, via sentence pairs. If the language  learners are students majoring in Milk and Dairy Products Technology, the teacher might present them with a set of sentences contextualizing some terms and ask the students to tick those sentences where the terms are applicable in this sense to the production of cheese, e.g.:

1. Egyptians were the first to knit items of clothing: among the earliest known examples are colourful wool fragments and cotton socks.
2. Lager beers usually take more time to brew and are aged longer than ales.
3. The Professor invited me into his office to clarify why my term paper had received a bad mark.
4. I will miss the starter and order the main meal instead because I am starving.
5. Moulds are fungi used in the production of bread and wine.

The sentences in which the italicized terms are used in a sense in which they will most probably appear when talking about cheese production are 2 and 5: some cheeses are aged and some cheeses have a mouldy rind. After that, the students might be asked to read another set of sentences where all of the italicized terms are used in the context of cheese production, e.g.:

1. After being drained, the curds are allowed to knit so that the desired cheese moisture and texture can be achieved.
2. The hydrolysis of protein during ageing contributes to the development of a softer body and aromatic flavour of cheese.
3. Milk is clarified because in this way extraneous matter can be removed and the texture and flavour of the cheese will be improved.
4. A starter (culture) of lactic acid-producing bacteria is added to warm milk.
5. Blue cheeses like Roquefort are produced by adding the Penicillium mould to the curd or by injecting it into the cheese.

The second set of sentences is compared with the first one, in which the italicized terms in examples 1, 3 and 4 were used in a sense irrelevant to the context of cheese production. The second set of sentences may be presented in the form of jumbled phrases to be arranged. The students might then be asked to put the sentences in the order in which the respective stages in the manufacture of cheese will appear. The correct order of the sentences is 3, 4, 1, 5, and 2, i.e. milk clarification, addition of starter culture, knitting of curds, addition of mould, and ageing of cheese. The students may also be asked to think of the missing steps in cheese preparation, which in this case will be cutting, cooking, salting, and pressing the curds. (Draining is mentioned in sentence 1.) In this way, the teacher will introduce the unfamiliar terms by making the students use their extra-linguistic knowledge.

Conclusion

In summary, teaching ESP is inspired by teaching EFL and ESL but the peculiarities of the various types of Special English may give rise to great many approaches to the learning process, especially having in mind the fluid needs of the language learners. The problematic aspects of teaching ESP may come from:

1. the teachers’ insufficient extra-linguistic knowledge relevant to the learning process which may be accompanied by their insufficient awareness of the functions having communicative value in specialized discourse;
2. the language learners’ insufficient strategic competence in General English which may be accompanied with insufficient extra-linguistic knowledge relevant to the learning process;
3. the lack of adequate teaching materials in ESP and the necessity to design a needs-oriented ESP syllabus;
4. the choice of field-oriented content in the teaching materials;
5. the selection of appropriate classroom activities;
6. the necessity to pick up teaching materials suitable for mixed-ability groups of learners as well as for groups of learners with different individual needs.

Notwithstanding the problems mentioned above, one hopes that applied linguists’ insights and the undiminished motivation of teachers and language learners will contribute to the enhancement of ESP teaching methodologies because learning language is always learning with a purpose.

References

Bates M., T. Dudley-Evans, (1976) Nucleus. English for Science and Technology. General Science, Longman

Choroleeva K., (2009) English for Food Science, UFT Academic Publishing House, Plovdiv

Coulthard M., (1992) An Introduction to Discourse Analysis, Longman

Gramley S., K. Pätzold, (1992) A Survey of Modern English, Routledge

Luizova-Horeva T., (2010) English for Technology and Engineering Students at the UFT, UFT Academic Publishing House, Plovdiv

Spolsky B., (1998) Sociolinguistics, OUP

Tarone E., G. Yule, (1989) Focus on the Language Learner. Approaches to Identifying and Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners, OUP

White L., (2003) Engineering Workshop, OUP  

Widdowson H. G., (1973) An Applied Linguistic Approach to Discourse Analysis, unpublished PhD thesis, at <http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/try/uk-publishers/oup/applied-linguistic-approach-discourse-analysis>

Widdowson H. G., (1978) Teaching Language as Communication, OUP

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 Daily news summaries and feature articles (http://www.citytowninfo.com/career-and-education-news) written about postsecondary education and careers. There are over 500 articles in our archive.Interviews with 30 career directors from colleges and universities (found in the career and education news section) such as Rutgers, Clemson, University of Kansas and other national, regional and community colleges. We have also just launched a new interview series with job recruiters. A 64-page eBook called Being an Elementary School Teacher (http://www.citytowninfo.com/employment/elementary-school-teachers) provides unvarnished opinions and advice about the elementary teaching profession. Several similar eBooks on other professions are planned for the coming months. 
These features are in addition to CTI Career Search's career videos and comparative salary and jobs data, organized by career, city and industry.Business English is English especially related to international trade.
It is a specialism within English language learning and teaching
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_English 
Education Search – www.education-online-search.com.
Once you have become proficient in business English you should consider getting a degree online in Business Communication. Good English communication skills are your key to the business world and success.
Online directory of education resources including Online Courses on Business Skills, Accounting, Sales, Marketing etc.: WorldWideLearn.com 
Learn English Online with English Portal www.english-portal.com Description: Learn English online - free exercises, idioms, common abbreviations, slang, proverbs and much more.

Breaking News English Daily - Breaking news lessons for ESL Free and 100% photocopiable. Still-hot lessons and plans with over 20 communicative ideas per lesson. Saves planning, and energizes classrooms, teachers and students. As the news breaks, teach it.

Education Portal http://education-portal.com
UEfAP Using English for Academic Purposes
Conflict Resolution Resources
Less Teaching and More Learning by Susan Gaer .

Contents

Issue #42

Issue #41

Issue #40

Mariusz Marczak
Gholam Reza Zarei
Parviz Ahmadi Darani
Nima Shakouri
Razieh Bahraminezhadi
B. Bala Nagendra Prasad
Ajit Pradhan
Troy B. Wiwczaroski
Murad Hassan Mohammed Sawalmeh
Munassir Alhamami
Maria Begoña Montero-Fleta
Sarika Tyagi
R. Kannan
Nancy Boahemaa Nkansah
Zahra Masoumpanah
Mohammad Hassan Tahririan
Galina Kavaliauskienė
Jūratė Patackaitė
IN COLLABORATION OF TWO UNIVERSITIES:
STUDENTS‘ SELF-ASSESSMENT AND SELF-EVALUATION OF ONLINE ACTIVITIES
Remi R. Aduradola
Bolanle I. Akeredolu-Ale
The Power of Student’s Involvement: Using Posters as Teaching Tools in Managing Large Classes
November, 12, 2013

Issue 39

Hussain Ahmed Liton and Tarek Abdallah AL Madanat
Integration of Culture into ESL/EFL Classroom: A Pedagogical Perspective
Muhammad Younas, Seyed Mohammad Jafari, Muhammad Asad, Abdul Ali, Khadija Akram
Female EFL Teachers Facing Challenges in Career Making: A Comparative Study of Pakistan and Iran
June 30, 2013

 

Issue 38

ONGOING RESEARCH INTO SPEAKING SKILLS 
Galina Kavaliauskienė
Comparative study of learning skills among students pursuing an education in healthcare
Troy B.Wiwczaroski, Ildiko Tar and Judit Tanczos
Rereading Bartholomae and Fulkerson: Two Major Compositionists 
Wincharles Coker
The LMD System: A Problematic of an ESP Perspective
Nawal MEBITIL
ESP in India: A Brief Historical and Current Overview
Ravindra B. Tasildar
Strands in Teaching Reading for Social Sciences: Change and Innovation
Awicha BENABDALLAH
Students’ reflections on the effectiveness of their ESAP courses: A multidisciplinary evaluation at tertiary level
Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous  and Stavroulla Hadjiconstantinou
Breaking gender stereotypes in technology education: Developing strategies in the English classroom 
Carmen Pérez-Sabater and María Luisa Pérez-Sabater
Building ESP teacher awareness through intercultural tandems – Post-practicum experience
Jarosław Krajka, Mariusz Marczak, Sibel Tatar, Senem Yildiz
L1 and L2 Effects on EFL Business Writing: A Holistic Evaluation of Interdependence
Mhamdi Faycel
Problems for English Language Teachers Working in Private Organizations in Pakistan
Shahbaz Arif and Muhammad Younas
A case study demonstrating the development of a short workplace English course in Hong Kong
Mark BROOKE
A Review of Problems Arab Students Encounter in Academic Writing
Aya T. EL-Sakran
The Design and Practice of an English Textbook for Restaurant
Mei-jung Wang and David Goodman
The Reasons behind the Weaknesses of Writing in English among Pre-year Students’ at Taibah University 
Ibrahim Fathi Huwari and Fadi Maher Al-Khasawneh
Areas of Improvement in Classroom Teaching: A Professional Development Plan for Business Communication
Dilshad Akber Ali and Dilshat Bano
Effects of Genre-Based Instruction on Students’ Writing Performance: The Case of Algerian Management Students 
Faiza SEKKAL
Towards Using Slides Projector to develop Foreign Language Learners’ Oral Skills: A Case Study
Fewzia BOUGANDOURA
March 31, 2013

Issue 37

Phonetic awareness to enhance learners’ speaking confidence: the case of EFL Algerian learners
Ms. Zakia DJEBBARI
Use of Language in Advertisements
Dr. R. Kannan, Dr. Sarika Tyagi
Pedagogic genre analysis: a module for copy-writing
Hajibah Osman
Design of materials and tasks for making ESP classes interactive
Shahin Sultana
An assessment of the efficacy of engineering ESP teachers’ training program in promoting better performance at ESP classroomHussain Ahmed Liton
Attitudes of EFL students towards using computers in learning English
Ahmad Khalil Abdelqader Awad
Sulaiman Mohammad Shlash Alkaraki

Applying strategies for dealing with lack of subject knowledge:
Can language teachers be effective ESP teachers?

TAVAKOLI, Mansoor, NASRI, Najmeh, REZAZADEH, Mohsen
SELF-EVALUATION IN ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
Galina Kavaliauskienė
Teaching ESP through translation: A key for Teaching Specialized Communication
Awicha BENABDALLAH
January 14, 201

Issue 36

Titles in Food Science Posters: A preliminary Survey from the ChimAlsi_2012 Book of Abstracts 
Eugenio Cianflone
Preliminary study on the partnerArticles_36/ship between students and teacher in a French LANSAD-science master context 
Claire Chaplier
Teaching English for human rights in France
Corina Veleanu
Using Extempore as a Task to Improve Oral Communication Skills 
Deepa S
Needs Analysis and Situational Analysis: Designing an ESP Curriculum for Thai Nurses
Josiane Gass
Integrating a Mind Mapping TechArticles_36/nique and Information Gap Activities in Teaching Academic Reading in English
I Made Sujana
Challenges in ESP: Teaching Millennials
Galina Kavaliauskienė
Personal Pronouns in English and Persian Medical Research Articles
Masoumeh Tayyebi
Using Literature in the Business and Medical English: A Case Study
Moussa Traore
The DNA of Officialese: Feasibility of Legal Genre Analysis in Official English to Persian Translation
Parviz Ahmadi DaraniI
Referral Trends among Students of the Communicative Skills Course in a Ghanaian University
Wincharles Coker and Francis M. Abude
Investigating EAP of Tourism in Iran: a Case Study of Students’ Perception
Abbass Eslami Rasekh and Shahla Simin
Correlation between Level of Communication Apprehension and Development of Communication Skills in Engineering Students
Ms. Sunanda Patil (Shinde) and Tripti Karekatti
A Discursive Approach to Interactions at Job Interviews and its Implication for Training
Teoh Mei Lin, Rachel S. K. Tan, Fauziah Taib, Choo Wee Ling
ESAP courses: An innovative vista in language learning. From needs analysis to evaluation
Stavroulla Hadjiconstantinou and Eleni Nikiforou      
Prefixation in computer science terminology: English-Spanish contrastive analysis 
(in Spenish, La prefijación en terminología informática: análisis contrastivo español-inglés)
Begoña Montero-Fleta y Mª José Labrador Piquer

ESP Learners’ Needs: A case Study of Medicine Students at Some Sudanese Universities
Fatah-ELrahman Dafa-Allah .A.M.
3 October 2012

Issue 35

Business Multi-Disciplinary Projects
English for Students of Psychology
Culture
Listening Skills
Writing Skills
A pragmatic analysis of errors in University students’ writings in English
Eva María Mestre Mestre and María Luisa Carrió Pastor
Oral communication
English for Engineering students
English for Medical Students
English for Medical Students and the Myth of Native Models Superiority
Elham Abdullah Ghobain and Grami Mohammad Grami
Problem solving
Internet in ESP
The Role of Internet in ESP Contexts
Shahla Simin, Ph.D Candidate
Reviews
Book Review. English for Professional and Academic Purposes. By: Miguel F. Ruiz-Garrido, Juan C. Palmer-Silveira, and Inmaculada Fortanet-Gómez. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Amsterdam - New York, NY .2010. 237 pages.
Reviewed by Maryam Sherkatolabbasi, Edited by Amir Mahdavi-Zafarghandi
July 4, 2012

Issue 34

Vocabulary learning strategies: a Case of Jordan University of Science and Technology
Fadi Maher Al-Khasawneh
Academic presentations on speciality at the beginning level. Preparation and delivery 
Natalya Snytnikova
English for Specific Purposes: E-Learning 
Galina Kavaliauskiene
Evaluation of an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) book for students of islamic and arabic studies 
Ayah T. El-Sakran
The English language needs of computer science undergraduate students at Putra University, Malaysia: A focus on reading skills 
Md. Momtazur Rahman
Student preparation to teach negotiation skills 
Troy B. Wiwczaroski & Éva Nagy Szabóné
Towards the contextualization teaching of the speaking skill:
from an ESP perspective 

Nawal Mebitil
Structure of reference lists in doctoral theses: a cross-disciplinary study 
Joseph Benjamin Archibald Afful
April 04, 2012

Issue 33

English for Researchers: A Study of Reference Skills
Ravindra B. Tasildar
Interlingual Subtitling as a Mode of Facilitating Incidental Foreign Language Acquisition 
Slavica Čepon
Relevant and Student-Friendly Course Materials for Distance Education Programmes:  A Case Study
Dr. G. Venkatraman
Second Language Acquisition through Task-based Approach – Role-play in English Language Teaching
A. Anne Dorathy, Dr. S.N. Mahalakshmi
Enhancing Language and Communication Skills through Project-Based Learning: A Study in a Workplace Communication Classroom
Faridah Musa, Rozmel Abdul Latiff, Norlaila Mufti, Maryam Mohamed Amin
Is it EAP or ESP? The Wind of Change
Zarina Othman, Taufik Rashid
Is ESP (EAP) a Composite or Simple Construct?
Spec- Reverse Engineering of a Specific Purpose Language Test

Razieh Rabbani Yekta, Mansoor Tavakoli, Abbas Eslami Rasekh
Genre-based Instruction
Genre-based Writing Instruction: Implications in ESP Classroom
M. Mojibur Rahman
Can genre-based instruction be ‘promising’ for transferability?
Wen-hsien Yang
Needs
The Linguistic needs of Textile Engineering students: A case study of National Textile University
Ansa Sattar, Saira Zahid, Muhammad Asim Mahmood, Muhammad Abrar Tahir, Nasir Ali
The Linguistic Needs and Preferences of Undergraduate Students of Zoology: A Case Study of Government College University
Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Asim Mahmood
EAP Needs Analysis in Higher Education: Significance and Future Direction
Soo Ruey Shing, Tam Shu Sim (Dr.)
Learning Needs – A Neglected Terrain: Implications of Need Hierarchy Theory for ESP Needs Analysis
Adnan Tahir
Teacher Training
Training teachers with English teaching methods
Dr. Corina Veleanu
Teacher Training in ESP: A Historical Review
Santosh Kumar Mahapatra
December 28, 2011

Issue 32

A preliminary description of conference abstracts and poster presentations in Food ScienceEugenio Cianflone
Student attitudes and intercultural communication studies 
Troy B. Wiwczaroski
Principles and methods of teaching foreign languages to dyslexic learners
Judit Tánczos, Katalin Mónos, Troy B. Wiwczaroski
United Doubts: Grammar Teaching in Pakistan. Teachers & Learners’ Perspective
Muhammad Asim Mahmood, Farhat Jabeen
English for Medical Purposes Course Design for Arab University Students
Mohamad Abdulhamed Molhim
Teaching English for Specific Purposes: A no man's land area of activity: Investigating ESP courses administered in Iranian Universities
Abbass Eslami Rasekh, Shahla Simin
Key Roles of ESP Practitioners: A Study at ISM, Dhanbad
Priya Kumari, M. Mojibur Rahman
Tunisian Business Students’ Handling of the Complaint Letter Rhetoric across, Arabic, French and English: Interdependence Revisited
Mhamdi Faycal
The Attitude of ESP Learners towards the Role of Self-Access Language Learning Centres in Improving their Reading Comprehension
Farzane Javdani, Naser Ghafoori, Hamid Reza Mahboudi
Teaching English as a Foreign/Second Language in Nepal: Past and Present
Krishna Bista
September, 30, 2011

Issue 31, Volume 10, 2011

Are English and Persian Distinct in their Discursive Elements: An Analysis of Applied Linguistics Texts 
Gholam Reza Zarei and Sara Mansoori
How to Create a Learning-Centered ESL Program
Krishna Bista
Investigating Iranian MA Students’ Perceptions of their Academic English Language Needs, Abilities and Problems
Yaser Khajavi & Yahya Gordani
A Survey of Oral Communication Apprehension in English among ESP Learners in an Engineering Course
Noor Raha Mohd Radzuan1 and Sarjit Kaur
Temporal Function of Research Process Nominal Groups in the English Titles of Chinese Journal Articles
Alex Rath
BLENDED LEARNING IN ESP LISTENING
Galina Kavaliauskienė
Investigating the English Language Needs of Engineering Students
Mohammad Salehi
The Development of an “English for Tourist Guides” Course Using a Task-based Approach to Enhance the Oral English Communication Ability of Chiang Mai Rajabhat University Undergraduates
Nittaya Sanguanngarm
A Review on the Effectiveness of Using Authentic Materials in ESP Courses
Zahra Zohoorian Vahid baghban and Pandian Ambigapathy
An Evaluation of a University Level English for Tourism Program 
Jenna Lee Thompson
Thesis. Master of Arts in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages
EIL and Foreign Accent in ELT
Abdullah Coşkun and Abdullah Arslan
Changing General to Specific: On the Outcome of Using Special English Materials in University English Courses 
Abbass Eslami Rasekh, Mehdi Jafarzadeh, Shahla Simin
April 30, 2010

Issue 30, Volume 9, 2010

ESP writing: weblogs or wikis?
Galina Kavaliauskienė
Academic difficulties for L2 medical students in Hungary
Ildiko Tar, Judit Tanczos and Troy B.Wiwczaroski
Designing communicative needs based syllabus for EST students to meet their demands of professional communicationJ.Al Muzzamil Fareen
Developing a teaching model based on wisdom approach for developing environmental values through teaching of English
N. Satsangee, Vasundhara Saxena, S. Paul
Communicative competence of science students: an illustration with UNAAB
Helen Bodunde and Bolanle Akeredolu-Ale
Criticizing ourselves as teachers through observation: from reflective to effective teaching 
İsmail Çakir
Scientific titles in Veterinary Medicine research papers
Eugenio Cianflone
Class V Hindi textbooks: materials analysis in the perspective of language teaching principles
M.Mojibur Rahman and Richa Sinha
The Construction of Multiple Identities in the Acknowledgement Section of a Masters DissertationDr. Joseph B. A. Afful, Mr. Isaac N. Mwinlaaru 
December 31, 2010

 

Issue 3 (29), Volume 9, 2010

CLIL: Preparing for Central Asian Students to Study Animal Husbandry in English
Troy B. Wiwczaroski - Hajdú Zita - Tar Ildikó
The Impact of ESP Materials on Medical Students’ Reading Proficiency
Masoud Khalili Sabet, Iraj Daneshvar
Factors of Code Switching among Bilingual English Students in the University Classroom: A Survey 
Krishna Bista
Tunisian science and technology students' perceptions of ESP courses: a step towards a program design  
Abdelfatteh Harrabi
Terminology Translation in Teaching Legal English
Victoria Mishchenko
September 30, 2010

Issue 2 (28), Volume 9, 2010

WRITING FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES: PROBLEMS FACED
BY ARAB POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS OF THE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS, UUM 
Fadi Maher Saleh Al-Khasawneh
Food Specifications as a Language learning Tool in ESP Classes 
Eugenio Cianflone - Giuseppa Di Bella - Giacomo Dugo
Promoting Vocabulary Knowledge of Law Students through Video: A Sample Lesson 
Sasan Baleghizadeh, Elnaz Oladrostam
Issues in education of English for specific purposes in the Tunisian higher education 
Abdelfatteh Harrabi
Language Needs Analysis of Art and Design Students: Considerations for ESP Course Design 
Sarjit Kaur and Alla Baksh Mohd Ayub Khan
Reflections on ESP
Thoughts on Portfolio Assessment in TESOL 
Paul Rogers
A WINDOW INTO ESP: TEACHING MEDICAL ENGLISH TO ITALIAN NURSES AND HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS 
Silvia Tropea 

May 27, 2010

Issue 1 (27), Volume 9, 2010

Harmonizing (L2/SP) competencies with labour market needs Julianna Mocsáriné Fricz - Hajdú Zita - Juhász Csaba - Troy B. WiwczaroskiTroy B. Wiwczaroski
High-Level Scientific Communication as Teaching Material:
An Exercise in Discourse Adjustment.
Claude Sionis
Using ICT in English for Specific Purposes classroom
Galina Kavaliauskienė and Ligija Kaminskienė
Whose English should we teach? Reflections from Turkey
Abdullah Coskun
Education in English for Specific Purposes in Tunisia: The case of the Higher
Institute of Commerce of Sousse

Abdelfatteh Harrabi
Getting on with Corpus Compilation: from Theory to Practice..
Camino Rea Rizzo
Development of a Writing Curriculum for Academic Purposes at Tertiary Level: the Case of Algerian EFL University Students Dr Hafida HAMZAOUI – ELACHACHI,

Issue 5 (26), Volume 8, 2009

Troy B. Wiwczaroski 
Resistances and Barriers to the Introduction of CLIL Courses (pdf)
Abstract
Joseph Benjamin Archibald Afful 
RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF INTRODUCTIONS IN AN UNDERGRADUATE ENGLISH STUDIES COURSE (pdf)
Abstract
R. Kannan 
Difficulties in learning English as a Second Language (pdf)
Abstract
Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh
Abbass Eslami Rasekh
WHY's OF PRO-FIRST LANGUAGE USE ARGUMENTS IN ESP CONTEXT (pdf)
Abstract
Ratchadaporn Janudom
Punchalee Wasanasomsithi
Drama and Questioning Techniques: Powerful Tools for the Enhancement of Students’ Speaking Abilities and Positive Attitudes towards EFL Learning
Abstract
December 31, 2009

Issue 4 (25), Volume 8, 2009

AN EVALUATION OF HOTEL EMPLOYEES' ATTITUDES TO GENERAL AND SPECIFIC ENGLISH IN THEIR COURSEWORK
Michael William Cameron Brunton 
Abstract doc-file pdf-file
An ESP Course for Tourism Students
Abdullah Coskun 
Abstract doc-file pdf-file
DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS' ENGLISH FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES COMPETENCE IN TOURISM STUDIES AT TERTIARY LEVEL
Ineta Luka 
Abstract doc-file pdf-file
Development of a Competency-based English Oral Communication Course for Undergraduate Public Relations Students
Fasawang Pattanapichet
Associate Professor Sumalee Chinokul, PhD
Abstract doc-file pdf-file zip-archive
September 28, 2009

Issue 3 (24), Volume 8, 2009

On "Yes, We Can": Linguistics Power and Possibility 
Krishna K. Bista
Analysing the English language needs of human resource staff in multinational companies 
Sarjit Kaur and Candice Marie Clarke

English for Specific Purposes and Content Teacher Collaboration: Report on a pilot Project.Eugenio Cianflone - Raffaella Coppolino 

An account of ESP ЁC with possible future directions English for Specific Purposes World
Mike Brunton
Business English in Asian ESP Journal 
Vitaly Ashkinazi

 

Issue 2 (23), Volume 8, 2009

L2 Skills Preparation for Scholarship Students English for Specific Purposes World
Hajdu Zita Magdolna Silye - Troy B. Wiwczaroski
Reassessing the ESP Courses Offered to Engineering Students in Iran (A Case Study) English for Specific Purposes World
Zahra Amirian, PhD in TEFL nd Mansoor Tavakoli, PhD in TEFL
DICTATION IN THE ESP CLASSROOM: A TOOL TO IMPROVE
LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY
 English for Specific Purposes World
Galina Kavaliauskiene and Irena Darginaviciene
April, 23, 2009

Issue 1 (22), Volume 8, 2009

ROLE OF MOTHER TONGUE IN LEARNING ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES   English for Specific Purposes World
Galina Kavaliauskiene, Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Paragraph Structure in Social Sciences: A Cross-Disciplinary Study  English for Specific Purposes World
Masoomeh Tayebi, Islamic Azad University Savadkooh Branch and Davood Borzabadi Farahani, Tehran University , Iran
A comparative study of L2 readers' performances on general purpose and academic purpose texts English for Specific Purposes World
R. Sahragard, Assistant Professor at Shiraz University, A. Rahimi, Assistant Professor at Kashan University, M. Shams, MA graduate in TEFL
ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES: ITS MEANING AND IMPORTANCE IN PRESENT INDIAN SCENARIO English for Specific Purposes World
Archana Shrivastava, Birla Institute of Management Technology
Mobility and Individuality: Two Concepts ESP Students Should Know about American Culture English for Specific Purposes World
Ozgur Yildirim, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey
L1 use in English Courses at University Level, a survey of literature on students and teachers' perspectives English for Specific Purposes World
Eugenio Cianflone
Improving ESP Teaching through Collaboration: The Situation in Hungary   English for Specific Purposes World
Ildiko Tar, Katalin Csob an Varga and Troy B. Wiwczaroski
Debrecen University Department of Agrotechnical Languages and Communication Studies
Evaluation of Highly Recommended: A textbook for the Hotel and Catering Industry English for Specific Purposes WorldEnglish for Specific Purposes World
Michael Brunton,
Payap University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
A needs analysis survey: The case of tourism letter writing in Iran English for Specific Purposes World English for Specific Purposes World
Katayoon Afzali, Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh, Sheikhbahaee University
February 11, 2009

Issue 5 (21), Volume 7, 2008

English for Specific Purposes World Authentic audio materials in ESP
Galina Kavaliauskiene (Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania)
English for Specific Purposes World Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition 
Krishna K. Bista (Troy University, Alabama, USA)
19 November 2008

Issue 4 (20), Volume 7, 2008

English for Specific Purposes World Developing Engineering Students' Communication Skills by Reducing their Communication Apprehension
Albert P'Rayan
PhD Scholar, Centre for Advanced Study in Linguistics, Annamalai University, India &
Ramakrishna T. Shetty
Director, Centre for Advanced Study in Linguistics, Annamalai University, India
English for Specific Purposes World Developing an ESP Speaking Course Framework for the Foreign Postgraduates
in Science and Technology at National University of Malaysia 

Md. Momtazur Rahman, Thang Siew Ming, Mohd Sallehhudin Abd Aziz and Norizan Abdul Razak
English for Specific Purposes World Developing Academic Competency for Studies in English: The Malaysian ESL Teachers' Perspective
Wong Fook Fei & Thang Siew Ming
School of Language Studies & Linguistics
The National University of Malaysia
English for Specific Purposes WorldA Course in English for Students of Engineering with Emphasis on Problem Solving Methods
G.Venkatraman
Senior Lecturer in English, School of Humanities and Sciences
SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 402, Tamil Nadu
B. Krishnamurthy 
Professor of English, School of Humanities and Sciences
SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 402, Tamil Nadu
English for Specific Purposes World A critical analysis of the literature review section of graduate dissertations at the university of Botswana 
Olufemi Akindele, Communication Studies Department, University of Botswana
English for Specific Purposes World Introduction to Needs Analysis 
Mehdi Haseli Songhori
English for Specific Purposes World Employer Perceptions on Graduate Literacies in Higher Education in Relation to the Workplace 
Koo Yew Lie, Vincent Pang, Fadhil Mansur Biodata
18 October 2008

Issue 3 (19), Volume 7, 2008

THE EFFCTIVE TEACHING OF THE GENRE OF HOTEL BROCHURE pdf- file doc-file
Zhao Ning
DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING READING COMPREHENSION TEXTBOOKS pdf-file doc-file
Fatemeh Mahbod Karamoozian, Abdolmehdi Riazi
ASPECTS OF MOTIVATION WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF AN ESP COURSE pdf-file doc-file
Ourania Katsara
ESP IN A SECONDARY ITALIAN SCHOOL pdf-file doc-file
Eugenio Cianflone
MANAGING RELATIONS: A STUDY OF POSITIONING STRATEGIES IN BRITISH INTERNATIONAL DISCOURSE pdf-file doc-file
References pdf-file doc-file
Cinzia Spinzi
08 July 2008

Issue 2 (18), Volume 7, 2008

TEACHING LISTENING SKILLS AT TERTIARY LEVEL
Galina Kavaliauskiene
THE USE OF FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS IN ORDER TO DEFINE STUDENTS' VIEWS OF THE ESP COURSE
Ourania A. Katsara
DO ENGLISH FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES (ESP) TEXTBOOKS PREPARE STUDENTS FOR WRITING RESEARCH ARTICLES (RAS)
A CASE OF METADISCOURSE ANALYSIS 

Gholam Reza Zarei
FACULTY PERCEPTIONS OF EFL STUDENT WRITING 
David Camps, Tom Salsbury
MAKING ENGINEERING STUDENTS SPEAK:
MAP FORMULA AND COMMUTAINMENT ACTIVITIES

Albert P'Rayan
MEDICAL STUDENTS' EMP LEARNING THROUGH INTERACTIVE SMS PLATFORM
Jafar Asgari Arani
Removed (January, 27, 2010)
See: http://www.eife-l.org/publications/proceedings/ilf08/contributions/designing-learning-spaces-with-advanced-learning-technologies/Arani.pdf
LESSON PLAN
THE MAN WHO BECAME RICH THROUGH A DREAM 
Michael Berman
CALL FOR PAPERS
International Conference on Language for Specific Purposes

Issue 1 (17), Volume 7, 2008

Correlations of L2 strategy selection with L2 experience and anxiety (.pdf)
Ildiko Tar
ESP Teaching: A Matter of Controversy (.pdf)
Ataollah Maleki
ESP, An Evaluation of Available Textbooks: Medical Terminology' (by Barbara Johnson Cohen) (.pdf)
Ramin Rahimy
On the Relationship between ESP & EGP (.pdf)
Mohammad Mohseni-Far
The effect of strategies-based instruction on student's reading comprehension of ESP texts (.pdf)
Majid Kh. Moghadam
Collaborative Learning in the EAP Classroom: Students' Perceptions (.pdf)
Faith A. Brown

Issue 3(16), Volume 6, 2007

Editor's Commentary
Responding to Change: Three Chinese Textbooks of Written Business Communication in English
WANG Meiling (China)
English Language Skills for Engineering Students: A Needs Survey
G.Venkatraman (India), P. Prema (India)
Assisting L2 Students in the ESP Classrooms with Specialised Vocabulary Acquisition Skills Rebecca Ranjan (Botswana)
Thou Shall Use PowerPoint: Students' Use and Abuse of PowerPoint in an ESL Oral Presentation Course 
Dele Femi Akindele (Botswana)
A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit?
Denise Milizia (Italy)
English for Satirical Purposes:
Humour, Culture and Language Learning at the Faculty of Political Science [1]
Cristina Pennarola (Italy)
Urdu-English Code-Switching:
The Use of Urdu Phrases and Clauses In Pakistani English
(A Non-native Variety)

Behzad Anwar

Issue 2(15), Volume 6, 2007
19.08.2007

A Coursebook Evaluation
Ramin Rahimy
Students' reflections on learning English for Specific PurposesGalina Kavaliauskienė
EAP and communicative use of languageGiti Karimkhanlui
Learner participation in the design of English for Biotechnology 
Albert P'Rayan

Issue 1(14), Volume 6, 2007

21.04.2007
The Native Speaker in the (Inter)Cultural Classroom: Cultural Consciousness Raising to Students in 'Broken Cultures' AbstractDr. Troy B. Wiwczaroski
PRESERVICE ESP TEACHER TRAINING IN AN AFRICAN FRENCH- SPEAKING COUNTRY: THE CASE OF COTE D'IVOIREBy Dr. Zoumana KONE
ESP/EAP classes for Sociology students: establishing learning priorities
Vida Zorko
ESP COURSE DESIGN: MATCHING LEARNER NEEDS TO AIMS
Sarjit Kaur
Developing a Set of Competencies for Teachers of English in Engineering Colleges
G. Venkatraman, Dr.P.Prema

Issue 2(13), Volume 5, 2006

25.12.2006
QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN TEACHING ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
Galina Kavaliauskiene
GOOD PRACTICE IN DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SPEAKING SKILLS 
Galina Kavaliauskiene
Learning Strategies of English Medical Terminologies in the Students of Medicine
Jafar Asgari Arani
THE USE OF CONNECTORS IN SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES BY NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE WRITERS
Mª Luisa Carrio Pastor

 

Issue 1(12), Volume 5, 2006

Analysing Workplace Oral Communication Needs in English among IT Graduates
Sarjit Kaur and Lee Siew Hua
English for Specific Purposes: ESL and the Nursing Assistant 
Matthew Currier
Managing Talk: The Role of the Chairperson in a Teachers' Meeting
Andrew Boon

Issue 3(11), Volume 4, 2005

(version date: 05.12.2005)
On the Effects of Globalization on ESP:A Thought Paper on Preparing a Place for Ourselvesin Hungarian Higher Education
Troy B. Wiwczaroski and Silye Magdolna
A pragmatic account of aviation manuals 
Simone Sarmento
Teaching Writing and Reading English in E S P through a Web-Based Communicative Medium: Weblog
Jafar Askari Arani
Removed (January, 27, 2010)
Ontological Approach to the Producent's Authorship in Academic Writing
K.B. Svoikin
Towards a Process-genre Based Approach in the Teaching of Writing for Business English 
Dr. Sarjit Kaur and Ms. Poon Sook Chun

Issue 2(10), Volume 4, 2005

November 10, 2005
Communication theory applied to the professional development of the communication studentTroy B. Wiwczaroski and Silye Magdolna
An ESP Course for Employees at the American University of Beirut
Kassim Shaaban
Scaffolding Reading of Engineering Texts
Scaffolding Reading Activities in a Content-Based Course for Students of Engineering, Architecture and Design

Tom Salsbury
Student engineers, ESP courses, and testing with Cloze Tests 
Joseba M. Gonzalez Ardeo
Designing an ESP Program For Multi-Disciplinary Technical Learners 
Chen, Yong
Integrating content-based tasks into a language classroom
Jolita Butkiene and Lilija Vilkanciene
ESP: A local report
Alireza Bonyadi
Effectively Implementing a Collaborative Task-based Syllabus (CTBA) in EFL Large-sized Business English Classes
Pi-Ching Chen

 

Issue 1(9), Volume 4, 2005

Research into Reading -Writing connections in English for Specific Purposes
Galina Kavalaiauskienė
Reading strategies of Greek University students learning English in an academic context 
Eleni Griva

A survey of writing needs and expectations of Hotel Management and Tourism students
Siti Hamin Stapa
Ismie Roha Mohd Jais
Testing the validity of small corpus informationSylvana Krausse
Examining the Importance of EST and ESL Textbooks and Materials: Objectives, Content and Form
Dr. Nooreen Noordin
Dr. Arshad Abdul Samad

Issue 2(8), Volume 3, 2004

Two Models Compared: Problem-Based Learning and Task-Based Learning
Mehdi Haseli Songhori
Theoretical Base and Problems in Business English Teaching in China
Lixin Li
Internet-based Medical Articles in EMP
Jafar Askari Arani

 

Issue 1(7), Volume 3, 2004

 

Issue 3(6), Volume 2, 2003

Corpus Linguistics. Idea of Alejandro Curado Fuentes
Using parallel corpora in the bilingual classroom
Pernilla Danielsson & Michaela Mahlberg
Using Corpus Resources as Complementary Task Material in ESP
Alejandro Curado Fuentes, Patricia Edwards Rokowski

 

Issue 2(5), Volume 2, 2003

Role of self -correction in learning ESP
Galina Kavaliauskien
ė
Modality in English and Hungarian Drug Information Leaflets Anita Hegedűs
English for Specific Purposes on the World Wide Web – a proposal for a Web-based coursebook supplement Jaroslaw Krajka

 

Issue 1(4), Volume 2, 2003

SP Students Learning Preferences : Are the Teachers Aware?
Dr. Siti Hamin Stapa
Asynchronous Discussions in ESP courses
Helder Fanha Martins
Learning ESP on the Internet: Learners Attitude
Galina Kavaliauskiene
Reading and Speaking on Biology and Medicine with a Special Textbook
Natalya Snytnikova

Developing small team communication skills in teaching ESP
Anissimova Lyubov
What is it like to Be a PP?
Olga Obdalova, Elena Osipova

 

Issue 3, Volume 1, December, 2002

A HISTORY OF ESP THROUGH ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
Martin Hewings
EQUIPMENT INSTRUCTIONS IN THE ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY SYLLABUSCharles Elerick
AN OVERVIEW OF MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS IN E.S.T.
Jean-Claude Viel
MUTUAL INSTRUCTION IN THE GLOBAL CLASSROOM
Yuri P. Tretyakov
MUSIC IN THE ESP CLASSROOMGalina Kavaliauskiene
INCIDENTAL ASPECTS IN TEACHING ESP FOR TURISMO IN SPAIN THE TURISMO LEARNER: ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH
Jesús García Laborda
EAC PROJECT IN BULGARIA
Keith Kelly
CURRENT TRENDS IN ESP TEACHING IN RUSSIA. (A VIEW FROM TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY)
Inna Cheremissina, Tamara Petrashova

 

Issue 2, Vol. 1, July 2002

A cognitive experience in ESP: teaching vocabulary to Telecommunications Engineering students.
Dr. Natalia Carbajosa Palmero, Spain
An ESP Curriculum for Greek EFL Students of Computing: A New Approach
Thalia Hadzigiannoglou Xenodohidis, Greece
Promoting the fifth skill in teaching ESP
Violeta Januleviciene and Galina Kavaliauskiene, Lithuania
Aspects of teaching adult learners
Galina Kavaliauskiene and Daiva Uzpaliene, Lithuania
Bridging the gap between English for Academic and Occupational Purposes 
Guadalupe Acedo Dominguez and Patricia Edwards Rokowski, Spain

 

Issue 1, Vol. 1, May 2002

Tasks for Business Science and Technology English: Evaluating Corpus-driven Data for ESP
Alejandro Curado Fuentes, Spain
Teaching Thinking Through ESP
Olga Almabekova, Russia
E-zines and E-Textbooks: Applications for Teachers
Kevin McCaughey, Russia
The Vocabulary of English for Scientific and Technological Occupational Purposes
Jean-Claude Viel, France
Colour Words 
Vitaly Ashkinazi, Elena Severinova, Russia
ESP in Slovenian Secondary Technical and Vocational Education
Marija Potočar, Slovenia
Aspects of Learning ESP at University
Galina Kavaliauskiene, Lithuania
Material Design for Computer Science
Maria Cristina Quisbert Quispe, Bolivia
QALSPELL Project: Quality Assurance in Language for Specific Purposes
Mari Uibo, Estonia
 

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