THE ANALYSIS OF CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURE IN “SALT” MOVIE SUBTITLES
A. Background of the Study
In communication, people use language. They do more to get another person understand the speaker’s thoughts and feelings. To know what the speakers mean, hearers have to interpret what they say. But interpretation is a tricky affair; misunderstandings are always possible and sometimes seem to be the rule rather than the exception (Jacob L. Mey, 1983: 100). According Leech, interpreting an utterance is ultimately a matter of guesswork, or (to use a more dignified term) hypothesis formation (1983:30-1).
Regarding on the above statement, people have to interpret the speaker’s say. In pragmatic, it calls with conversational implicature. Grice say that conversational implicature can be defined as a different (opposite, additional, etc) pragmatic meaning of an utterance with respect to the literal meaning expressed by utterance (Jacob L. Mey, 1998: 371).
In a case of conversational implicature the hearer crucially makes the assumption that the speaker is not violating one of the conversational maxims, relevance, informativeness, or clarity. Implicature is a concept of utterance meaning as opposed to sentence meaning. Furthermore, implicature is related to the method by which speakers work out the indirect illocutions of utterance (James R. Hurford, 1983: 278). We might be found this problem in conversation from the movie.
Movie is a sequence of picture projected on a screen from a developed and prepared film especially with an accompanying sound track (Webster’s Dictionary, 2004: 654). It is one of the human product literature terms. As we know that most of people in the world love movie whether in humor, scary, action, love drama, or others. It can express someone thought and meaning sense. Generally, in the conversational of movie has specific aim. Usually, the conversational makes someone confused with the speaker’s statement.
In a movie, many utterances have differences meaning. Furthermore, as movie’s lovers we might to know what the conversational purpose. Understanding the meaning of conversation is needed by viewer in order to avoid misunderstanding. One of the popular movies is Salt. Salt has many utterances that we do not know the meaning. For example:
00:04:12,620 --> 00:04:26,180
Salt : You want me to make you breakfast?
How about pancakes?
Mike : You're cooking?
Salt : You're joking, you like my cooking.
Mike : Germans don't joke.
Salt : Bert likes my cooking.
In this conversation, the viewers can not find “yes or no” answer but the answer from the question is statement. The conversation of Salt and her husband (Mike) contain touch and joke. The question “You’re cooking?” and answer “You’re joking, you like my cooking.” means that actually Mike knows his wife can cook but Mike tempts Salt. The conversation above includes conversational implicature based on cooperative principle in maxim of quality. The context of situation happens in the morning. Salt wake up when Mike works in his room. Mike smiles with Salt and they look happy because this day is their anniversary.
00:08:09,020 --> 00:08:49,060
Salt : So what is your name?
Orlov : My name is Alec Vassilly Orlov.
I have cancer.
Salt : I'm moved.
A defector with cancer. Are you selling secrets for
chemo or are you afraid of dying?
Orlov : If I have gained anything by damming myself,
it is that I no longer have anything to fear.
is also dying. Russia
There, Salt interrogates Orlov but she as if hearer. After Orlov finished tell his story, Salt gives him the statement which pressure Orlov’s statement. Salt’s silent not means that she does not anything but she thinks the strategy to trap Orlov. In this case, Salt uses the politeness principle connected with maxim of sympathy. She as if moved with Orlov’s disease, whereas in the investigation situation, it usually expresses by suspected. Situation in there, quite calm but in out of investigation room, everybody look carefully.
Regarding on the situation, people try to guess the meaning of utterance depending on the context that is the circumstances of this particular question, the persons involved in the situation or the person’s background.
From that phenomenon, the writer is in conducting the study of conversational implicature used in Salt movie. Here the writer carries out a research entitled “A DESCRIPTIVE
CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURE USED IN “SALT” MOVIE SCRIPT”. STUDY ON
B. The Problem of the Study
Based on the researcher background, the writer decided some problems statement as follows:
1. What are the variation’s meanings of the conversational implicature used in “Salt” Movie Script?
2. What are the reasons of the conversational implicature used in “Salt” Movie Script?
C. The Objective of the Study
In writing this thesis, the writer has objectives as follow:
1. To describe the variation’s meanings of the conversational implicature used in “Salt” Movie Script.
2. To explain the reasons the conversational implicature used in “Salt” Movie Script.
D. The Benefit of the Study
This study will give additional information to the readers, they will know about conversational implicature used in “Salt” movie script.
The writer expects that the study can contribute to the development of literally study. Especially for students who are interested in the literally study. In addition, this thesis gives more information to the reader about utilizing appropriate statement used in daily conversation and speaks with whom.
E. The Limitation of the Study
In pragmatics study, there are so many kinds of attractive problems that can be analyzed and discussed. It is impossible to analyze of them. So, this research is limited some problems by analyzing all the English conversation that is support the conversational implicature which is contained in the “Salt” Movie Script.
F. Clarification of Key Terms
To avoid mistakes of the little consideration, the writer clarifies the term as the following:
1. Descriptive Study
Descriptive study is a study to collect data in the form of words, pictures, and without calculation (Moleong, 2002: 6). This study will focus on a particular situation, report on important aspect observed, and attempt to determine the interrelationships among them.
2. Conversational Implicature
Conversational implicature can be defined as a different (opposite, additional, etc) pragmatic meaning of an utterance with respect to the literal meaning expressed by utterance (Jacob L. Mey, 1998: 371). Besides that, implicature is a technical term in the pragmatics subfield of linguistics, which refers to what is suggested in an utterance, even though not expressed nor strictly implied by the utterance.
Salt is a 2010 American thriller film (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt). This movie directed by Philip Noyce, written by Kurt Wimmer and starring Angelina Jolie, Live Schreiber, Daniel Olbrychski, August Diehland Chiwetel Ejiofor. Angelina Jolie plays Evelyn Salt, who is accused of being a KGB sleeper agent, and goes on the run to try to clear her name.
Originally written with a male protagonist, the film had Tom Cruise initially secured for the lead, but the script was ultimately rewritten for Jolie. Filming took place on a location in Washington, D.C., the New York City area, and Albany, New York, between March and June 2009, with re-shoots in January 2010. Action scenes were mostly done with practical stunts, with computer-generated imagery being used mostly for creating digital environments.
The film had a panel at the San Diego Comic-Con on July 22 and was released in North America on July 23, 2010 and August 18, 2010, in the
. Salt grossed $311 million at the worldwide box office, and received mixed to positive reviews, praising the action scenes and Jolie's performance, but finding the plot predictable and impossible. The DVD and Blue-Ray was released on December 21, 2010, and featured two alternate cuts which provide different endings for the movie. United Kingdom
Movie is a sequence of picture projected on a screen from a developed and prepared film especially with an accompanying sound track (Webster’s Dictionary, 2004: 654).
Script is an original or principal instrument or document (as a will or codicil) when executed with copies or a copy when the original is lost (Webster’s Dictionary, 1981: 2041).
G. The Literature Review
This research is descriptive qualitative research. That research is needless the administration and control in treatment. Moreover, that research is not aimed to examine the certain hypothesis but it just describes a variable, tendency and truly situation (Suharsimi Arikunto, 2005: 234). So, the writer will focus on conversational implicature analysis through library analysis. There are some literally works that conduct almost the same topic that will be researched by the write. On of them is “A Descriptive Study on Idiomatic Expression in Sun and Candle Light Novel by Betty Neelz” which has been researched by Nur Khamidah in 2007, the student of State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga. In this research, she found that there are many idiom which are used in Betty Neels, Sun and Candle Light, but not all of the kinds of idiom are there. There are idioms with verbs and noun that are used together, idioms with preposition and adverb, adjective with preposition, verbs with preposition and adverb particles, idioms with the verb to be, idiom of comparison. The idioms are used by all people, informal or formal condition, spoken or written form but the weakness of idiom people did not feel that they used idiom, moreover the Indonesian when English as the foreign language or second language.
In addition, the other review related to this research is “A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Politeness in Address Terms Used In Titanic Movie Manuscript” which has been researched by Septi Wulandari in 2006, the student of State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga. In this research, the writer found the variation of address terms used in Titanic Movie Manuscript up to five variations, there are: address terms using name, address terms using kinship, address terms using intimacy, and address terms using mockery. In Titanic Movie Script, the mockeries terms is more than used by people in upper class but people in lower class is inclined to use politeness term to addresses other.
H. The Methodology of Research
1. The Method of Research
This research is in the domain of qualitative research. The type of this research is “Descriptive Qualitative Research”. Moleong affirms that, qualitative research is a research of which the data is in the form of written or oral word is descriptive method (2002: 4). Descriptive is serving to describe or analogy something and it deals the meaning of thing and view of meaning is associate. Furthermore, Moleong says that qualitative research is a search of which data in the forms of written or oral word are descriptively analyzed, which does not include any calculation or numerating (2002: 3).
Qualitative research always has descriptive quality, it means that the data which are analyzed and the data analysis result have the form of phenomenon descriptive, not nominal form or coefficient about relationship among variable (Aminudin, 1999: 16). We can infer that qualitative research is systematic application of the problems and the data here can be oral or written.
2. The Method of Collecting Data
In this research, the writer uses documentation as the way to collect the data. Documentation is a written or printed paper that bears the original, official or legal form of something and can be used to furnish decisive evidence or information. Documentation in this case is the “Salt” movie script.
The ways of collecting data are as follows:
a. The writer selects the “Salt” movie script.
b. The writer reads all of the “Salt” movie script.
c. The writer collections and takes notes about conversational implicature belonging to “Salt” movie script.
3. The Method of Analyzing Data
In analyzing the data, the writer uses descriptive analysis technique to analyze conversational implicature used in “Salt” movie script.
The procedures of analyzing the data are as follows:
a. The writer watches the “Salt” movie.
and learning all sentences from the movie script. Reading
c. Identifying the kind of conversational implicature.
d. Mentioned the variation of the conversational implicature used in “Salt” Movie script.
e. Describing the variation’s meanings of the conversational meaning used in “Salt” Movie Script
f. Explaining the reasons the conversational implicature used in “Salt” Movie Script
I. Thesis Organization
This research is divided into five chapters and each chapter explains about something differently, according to the topics which are discussed.
Chapter I is the introduction which contains the background of the study, the problem of the study, the objective of the study, the benefit of the study, the limitation of the study, clarification of key term, review of related literature, methodology of research and the outline of graduating paper.
Chapter II is theoretical review of conversational implicature which contains the description of conversational implicature and the types of conversational implicature.
Chapter III is the biography of “Salt” Movie.
Chapter IV is research founding and data analysis which contains the conversational implicature used in “Salt” Movie Script.
Chapter V is closure contains the conclusion and suggestion for the further study.
The last terms in this research are bibliography and appendix.