Kamis, 02 November 2017

RELATIVE CLAUSES

1. The relative pronouns:

The relative pronouns are:

Subject  Object  Possessive
who whom, who whose
which which whose
that that  

We use who and whom for people, and which for things.
We use that for people or things.
We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses, which tell us more about people and things.

2. Relative clauses to postmodify a noun 

 

We use relative clauses to postmodify a noun - to make clear which person or thing we are talking about. In these clauses we can have the relative pronoun who, which, whose or that
  • as subject (see Clauses Sentences and Phrases)
Isn’t that the woman who lives across the road from you?
The police said the accident that happened last night was unavoidable
The newspaper reported that the tiger which killed its keeper has been put down.
WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the subject of the clause.
We do not repeat the subject:
*The woman who [she] lives across the road…
*The tiger which [it] killed its keeper …
  • as object of a clause (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases)
Have you seen those people who we met on holiday?
You shouldn’t believe everything that you read in the newspaper.
The house that we rented in London was fully furnished.
The food was definitely the thing which I enjoyed most about our holiday.
- Sometimes we use whom instead of who when the relative pronoun is the object:
Have you seen those people whom we met on holiday?
- When the relative pronoun is object of its clause we sometimes leave it out:
Have you seen those people we met on holiday?
You shouldn’t believe everything you read in the newspaper.
The house we rented in London was fully furnished.
The food was definitely the thing I enjoyed most about our holiday.
WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the object of the clause.
We do not repeat the object:
Have you seen those people who we met [them] on holiday?
The house that we rented [it] in London was fully furnished.
The food was definitely the thing I enjoyed [it] most about our holiday.
  • as object of a preposition. When the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition we usually put the preposition after the verb.:
You were talking to a woman >>> Who was the woman who you were talking to?
My parents live in that house >>> That’s the house that my parents live in.
You were talking about a book. I haven’t read it. >>> I haven’t read the book which you were talking about.
- When the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition we usually leave it out:
Who was the woman you were talking to?
That’s the house my parents live in.
- Sometimes we use whom instead of who:
Who was that woman whom you were talking about.
- When we use whom, which or whose the preposition sometimes comes at the beginning of the clause:
I haven’t read the book about which you were talking.
- We can use the possessive form, whose, in a relative clause:
I always forget that woman’s name >>> That’s the woman whose name I always forget.
I met a man whose brother works in Moscow.

3. Times and places

We also use when with times and where with places to make it clear which time or place we are talking about:
England won the world cup in 1996. It was the year when we got married.
I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day when the tsunami happened.
Do you remember the place where we caught the train?
Stratford-upon-Avon is the town where Shakespeare was born.
... but we can leave out the word when:
England won the world cup in 1996. It was the year we got married.
I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day the tsunami happened.

4. Giving additional information

 We use who, whom, whose, and which (but not that) in relative clauses to tell us more about a person or thing.
  • as subject (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases)
My uncle, who was born in Hong Kong, lived most of his life overseas.
I have just read Orwell’s 1984, which is one of the most frightening books ever written.
WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the subject of the clause.
We do not repeat the subject:

My uncle, who [he] was born in Hong Kong, lived most of his life overseas.
I have just read Orwell’s 1984, which [it] is one of the most frightening books ever written.
  • as object (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases)
We saw the latest Harry Potter film, which we really enjoyed.
My favourite actor is Marlon Brando, who I saw in “On the Waterfront”.
- we can use whom instead of who as object:
My favourite actor was Marlon Brando, whom I saw in “On the Waterfront”.
WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the object of the clause.
We do not repeat the object:
We saw the latest Harry Potter film, which we really enjoyed [it].
My favourite actor is Marlon Brando, who I saw [him] in “On the Waterfront”.
  • as object of a clause :
He finally met Paul McCartney, whom he had always admired.
We are going back to Venice, which we first visited thirty years ago.
We can also use who as the object.
He finally met Paul McCartney, who he had always admired.
WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the object of the clause.
We do not repeat the object:
He finally met Paul McCartney, whom he had always admired [him].
We are going back to Venice, which we first visited [it] thirty years ago.
  • as object of a preposition:
He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, who he had read about in the newspaper.
That’s the programme which we listened to last night.
- We sometimes use whom instead of who:
He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, whom he had read about in the newspaper.
- The preposition sometimes comes in front of the relative pronoun whom or which:
He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, about whom he had read in the newspaper.
That’s the programme to which we listened last night.

5.  Quantifiers and numbers with relative pronouns

 We often use quantifiers and numbers with relative pronouns:
many of whom - most of whom - one of which - none of whom
some of which - lots of whom - two of which - etc.
We can use them as subject, object or object of a preposition.
She has three brothers, two of whom are in the army.
I read three books last week, one of which I really enjoyed.
There were some good programmes on the radio, none of which I listened to.

6. Using  "which" to give more information

We often use the relative pronoun which to say something about a clause:
He was usually late, which always annoyed his father.
We’ve missed our train, which means we may be late.

Relative Clauses

Content
How to form relative clauses Level 2
Relative pronouns Level 2
Subject pronouns or Object pronouns? Level 2
Relative adverbs Level 3
Defining relative clauses Level 2
Non-defining relative clauses Level 4
How to shorten relative clauses Level 3
Exercises and Tests
Exercises and tests on relative clauses
We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting another sentence. By combining sentences with a relative clause, your text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words.

How to Form Relative Clauses Level 2

Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. You want to know who she is and ask a friend whether he knows her. You could say:
A girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl?
That sounds rather complicated, doesn't it? It would be easier with a relative clause: you put both pieces of information into one sentence. Start with the most important thing  – you want to know who the girl is.
Do you know the girl …
As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about, you need to put in the additional information  – the girl is talking to Tom. Use „the girl“ only in the first part of the sentence, in the second part replace it with the relative pronoun (for people, use the relative pronoun „who“). So the final sentence is:
Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?

Relative Pronouns Level 2

relative pronoun use example
whosubject or object pronoun for peopleI told you about the woman who lives next door.
whichsubject or object pronoun for animals and thingsDo you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
whichreferring to a whole sentenceHe couldn’t read which surprised me.
whosepossession for people animals and thingsDo you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
whomobject pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who)I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
thatsubject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible)I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? Level 2

Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms - who, which, that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however, distinguish them as follows:
If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.
the apple which is lying on the table
If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses.
the apple (which) George lay on the table

Relative Adverbs Level 3

A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand.
This is the shop in which I bought my bike.
→ This is the shop where I bought my bike.
relative adverb meaning use example
whenin/on whichrefers to a time expressionthe day when we met him
wherein/at whichrefers to a placethe place where we met him
whyfor whichrefers to a reasonthe reason why we met him

Defining Relative Clauses Level 2

Defining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive relative clauses) give detailed information defining a general term or expression. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.
Imagine, Tom is in a room with five girls. One girl is talking to Tom and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause defines which of the five girls you mean.
Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?
Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions.
A seaman is someone who works on a ship.
Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. (Sentences with a relative clause without the relative pronoun are called Contact Clauses.)
The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice.

Non-Defining Relative Clauses Level 4

Non-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses or non-restrictive relative clauses) give additional information on something, but do not define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.
Imagine, Tom is in a room with only one girl. The two are talking to each other and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause is non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which girl you mean.
Do you know the girl, who is talking to Tom?
Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that.
Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.
Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice.

How to Shorten Relative Clauses? Level 3

Relative clauses with who, which, that as subject pronoun can be replaced with a participle. This makes the sentence shorter and easier to understand.
I told you about the woman who lives next door. – I told you about the woman living next door.
Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? – Do you see the cat lying on the roof?

Exercises on Relative Clauses

Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs

Relative Clauses and Contact Clauses

Tests

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