BY JATI HANDAYANI
Forests in Indonesia are like a green diamond. It is so priceless. Forests as the lungs of the world have a main function as a counterweight climate. Indonesia as one of the country that has vast forests, but forests that exist today is not like before. Deforestation was widespread either intentionally or not. The major problems that make deforestation in Indonesia are illegal logging, conversion, and forests fire. They give bad effects for nature preservation and human life.
The first factor of deforestation is illegal logging. Illegal logging is transportation and sale the wood without permission from local authorities. Although there is an inspection of the activity of illegal logging, the detection was proven to be difficult. Several reliable sources identified that more than a half of illegal logging activities in the world contaminated the watershed area of Amazon, central Africa, Southeast Asia, Russia, and several Balkan countries. It is not different in Indonesia, largest the number of timber producing country, yet be so incredibly experiencing deforestation. The cause of that forests destruction is the weak law enforcement to punish illegal logging barons. The information said that during the year 2005, there were a number of recorded disturbances that threatened the forests existence and its condition. These disturbances were land occupation by the community which reached 19.527,91 hectares of forests, and illegal logging practices which caused a loss of 686,353.01 M3 of logs.
The impact of illegal logging was including the occurrence of floods and landslides during the rainy season. It can occur since there is no more impregnation that can hold the waters when it rains. The trees in the forests are being a good water infiltration. Therefore, when the trees was been cut no longer retaining water during the rainy season. Flood that occurs will cause new disasters to landslides because the soil was been smashed constantly. Meanwhile, during the dry season, the people were difficult to find a water source. Another effect that happens is imbalance of forests ecosystem; it can cause some animals to die. Even wild animals can threaten the people around them when they were fallen to settlement.
The second problem that caused deforestation is conversion. Conversion is the transfer of functions of forests that originated from protected forests to industry forests. Forests serve as plantations like palm oil. Such conversion had intended to human interests. The people get jobs and the benefits of crops plantation are useful for human life. However, it is wrong and violates the rules because it has damaged the forests. Plantations have been there themselves so that humans do not need to shift as plantations forests because the impact of forests conversion is interrupting the continuity of the forests and forests ecosystems are not functioning properly. From the data obtained that the conversion of forests by humans has been damaging 7 ha of forests in Indonesia until the end of 1997. If it continues, then there will be no more forests as a prescription to prevent flooding. Flooding could occur because of infiltration of plants in the plantation was not optimal as the forests vegetation.
The last problem that causes deforestation is a fire forests. It is caused by two factors namely natural risk factors and consequences of human carelessness. The natural factors caused by lightning strikes. While the result of human carelessness, such as forests fires such as burning of forests that not maintained so that later expanded into another area of unwanted region is not useful, and discard any cigarettes butt that could burn the forests without been noticed.
The effect of the fires that caused by either natural or caused by humans is air pollution. There has also been an increasingly hot temperatures increase because it makes gas emission into atmosphere. The smoke generated in addition to health can also disrupt the air, sea, and land transportation. This is detrimental to human in term can also disrupt the air, sea and land transportation. This is detrimental to human economic, times and energy. In term of economic loss incurred a businessman who usually come from outside the city is in the form of delayed items ready to ship. In terms of time will require a longer interval than normal to get to destination. From the economic impact of loss of time and result in decreased body condition and cause their own mental distress.
As we know that forests have important functions in our lives and our environment, so that our consciousness is also important. Deforestation should be a concern to everyone. From this statement, we can save our forests. We can start from small things like using the paper to sense to reduce wood production. Beside that, early education about forests sustainability for the younger generation is importance to be able to bring significant changes for deforestation that has occurred lately. Therefore, the younger generation does not do the same and able to maintain environmental sustainability in the future. On the other hand, Indonesian law must be considered intensively and enforced, so there is no longer a violation of Indonesian law that can be detrimental to many parties.