Sabtu, 23 April 2011

MODIFIERS vs. Complement

dEAR all netters.
tahukan anda apa beda yang CLEAR CUT antara modifiers and complement?
berikut ini paparan singkat ajah:


A modifier is OPTIONAL.YAH, Betoel bangetz,opsional, gan !!!. jadi beda sama KAMPLENGEN Eh COMPLEMENT yang harus kudu ada dalam struktur kalimat.Coz we all know that MODIFIERS (Semacam penjelas gitu) can change the meaning of the structure it modifies in interesting ways; for example, although the cat in Noun Phrase (frasa nomina) a. is a neutral sort of cat, you might form different opinions about whether to pat the cats in NPs b. and c. :

The cat
The cuddly, friendly cat
The fierce, mean cat

But cat is not a word that necessarily takes an adjective. Consider:

The cat sat on the mat.

It's a well formed sentence. We don't have any information about whether it's advisable to pat this cat, but that's a practical concern, not a grammatical one.

Similarly we can say:

Harold drove.
Harold drove fast.
Harold drove fifty miles over the speed limit.
Harold drove with exemplary caution on the wet road.

The adverbials in sentences 1-4. give you information about " how Harold drove "and might lead you to different conclusions about whether you'd like to be Harold's passenger, but the sentence "HAROLD DROVE". is complete--if bland--without an adverbial modifying the verb.


tRIK dan tips mudah untuk mengingatnya ialah bahwa: COMPLEMENTS COMPLETE. In other words, they are necessary (wajib 'ain: obligatory) to complete the meaning and the structure of a particular construction. As a speaker of English, you may get the sense that something is missing if an obligatory complement is left out.

I. For example, a small class of English verbs require adverbials of location as complements.

DWELL is one of a few such verbs, which is why *FAY AHMED DWELLS. is SO EXTREMELY :) ungrammatical.

Compare TO this one:

Fay ahmed dwells in a lovely village called Kye Gompa.
Fay Ahmed dwells there.
There, Fay Ahmed dwelt.

II. Similarly, with be and the linking verbs, the subjective complement completes both the structure and the meaning.

*FAY AHMED SEEMS. won't work alias ga jalan,gan: because the word SEEM is used only as a linking verb.


FAY AHMED SEEMS WELL. [adj. as subjective complement]
FAY AHMED SEEMS TO BE WELL. [infinitive as subjective complement]
FAY AHMED SEEMS A SNOB. [NP as subjective complement]

You might say that these sentences work because the word SEEMS is tagged in a speaker's internal dictionary, or mental lexicon, as a verb that requires a an adjectival or Noun Phrase complement:

Some verbs that can function as linking verbs can also be used as transitive or intransitive, but note that their meaning changes:

Fay Ahmed looked (pak fay melihat).
Fay Ahmed looked down the hole(pak fay ngliat ke lobang di tanah).
BUT Fay Ahmed looks good and cool.(pak fay keliatan cakep dan keren:)

jadi kata LOOK paling tidak punya dua possible tags: it's either without complement (intransitive) or (in a different meaning) with subjective complement.

Compare: Harold looked down the hole. This sentence is simply an instance of the intransitive use with an adverbial PP modifying the verb.

A sentence like: Harold is. is possible only in the present tense and only in the marginal meaning "Harold exists." You might, in fact, want to consider it a sort of pseudo pattern VI (intransitive).

The sentence Harold was. isn't a possible sentence in English in the meaning *"Harold existed."

Forms of BE can, however, occur in all tenses as responses to questions, but in these cases the complement is missing, or implied from the context of the preceding sentence; for example:

Q. Who was at the party?

A. Harold was. [at the party]. (pattern I be + ADV T/P)

Q. Who is the smartest of them all?

A. Fay Ahmed Lats is. [the smartest of them all] (pattern II be + adj)

Q. Who was the team's manager?

A. Harold was. [the team's manager]. (Pattern III be + NP)

III. Some grammarians would describe verbs that are ONLY transitive as requiring direct objects as complements.


*Harold adores.


Harold adores chicken tandoori. [NP as D.O. ]
Harold adores eating Indian food. [gerund phrase as D.O.]

Again, the word ADORE can be thought of as tagged in the speaker's mental dictionary as requiring a direct object:

IV. Similarly, some verbs are marked as requiring either objects or objective complements:

*The voters elected. (contoh yang salah)
BUT REMEMBER YACH SODARA-SODARA :)ini yang grammatically correct atau bener
the voters elected a president.
The voters elected Fay Ahmed Ernestine president.

A verb like ELECT would be marked as either:
1. requiring a D.O.
2. requiring a D.O. and an objective complement:

V. Other structures, for example, adjectives, can take complements too.
Harold is eager.
Harold is eager to go to the store.
Here, the adjective EAGER is tagged as possibly, but not obligatorily, taking an infinitive as complement.

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